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how many phases in the motor kills learning cycle?



what are the 4 phases of the motor learning cycle?

phase 1: consider the person, context, task and skill
phase 2: plan
phase 3: implement practice
phase 4: review instructional process


what are the two instructional approaches in physical activity domain?

direct and indirect


what is direct approach

related terms in motor learning, pedagogy and coaching
-prescriptive/hands-on approach
-explicit learning
-command teaching style
-practice teaching style


what are the two common assumptions about direct approach?

1. there is a universal norm regarding what a person should be able to do and the route leading to the mastery of a particular skill
2. all decisions regarding the learning process are made predominately by the coach


what are the 5 characteristics of direct approach

1. teacher, instructor/coach oriented
2. clear instructional goal is presented
3. content is divided into a sequenced chunks of information leading to acquisition of efficient actions
4. most of the time spent in direct instruction
5. immediate/specific feedback re-emphasizing the critical features of the desired movement is provided


what are the 6 advantages of direct approach?

1. direct route to the objective
2. easier to implement than the indirect style
3. minimal time to organize, maximum time to practice
4. effective with larger groups
5. relatively little conscious effort involved
6. fast gains in performance


what are 3 disadvantages to the direct approach?

1. all students practice at the same level therefore insensitive to individual needs and differences
2. fails to promote thinking (problem solving)
3. promotes the development of "rigid routines"


what is the indirect approach?

relevant terms in motor learning, pedagogy and coaching
-implicit learning
-guided discovery teaching style
-non-linear pedagogy/hands-off practice
-teaching games for understanding (TGFU)


what does TGFU stand for?

teaching games for understanding


what are the 2 common assumptions for indirect approach?

1. purpose of the practice is to seek, explore, discover and assemble stable movement patterns, under a range of environmental contexts
2. to afford such exploration different constraints need to be changed/manipulated


what are the 5 characteristics for indirect approach

1. learners are not formally exposed to verbal instruction to perform a movement in a specific manner
2. explicit feedback is faded away to promote problem-solving skills
3. a series of challenges/limitations channel the performer towards more optimal movement
4. participant make individual decisions about the most optimal solution
5. several movements may be acceptable as long as they are effective


what is the 3 advantages to indirect approach?

1. opportunity to experiment, compare, analyze problem solve
2. development of intrinsic motivation (internal locus of control)
3. facilitates generalization and transfer


what are the disadvantages to indirect approach?

1. time consuming
2. requires experienced instructor
3. requires availability of space and equipment


what 5 main factors would affect your choice to use direct or indirect approach?

1. goals of the learning session
2. skill level of participants
3. types of task/skills involved
4. availability of space/time and equipment
5. level of experience of the coach


what is the definition of motor learning?

changes associated with practice or experience in internal processes that determine a person's capability for producing a motor skill, PERMANENTLY


true or false: abilities alone are not sufficient to become skilled



what is goal setting?

process of establishing targets for performance SMART goals


what are the 3 types of goals

1. outcome goals
2. performance goals
3. process goals


what is an outcome goal?

emphasis on the end result


what is a performance goal?

emphasis on improvement of performance in relation to past accomplishment


what is a process goal?

emphasis on improvement of movement production


what are three types of target goals?

1. target skills
2. target behaviours
3. target context


what is a target skill

a skill a person wishes to perform


what is target behaviour

actions people must be able to produce to perform target skills successfully (key coaching/instructional points)


what is target context

environmental context in which people want to be able to perform a skill or skills


what is the definition of transfer of learning

gain or loss of a person's proficiency on task as a result of previous practice or experience on another task


what is near transfer?

from one practice context to a similar skill/target context


what is near transfer also known as?



what is near transfer also in line with the notion of?

specificity of learning


what is far transfer?

from one task or situation to another very different task or situation (from fundamental movement skills to specialized skills which may be different than originally practiced tasks) from part to whole


what are the 6 aspects of verbal-cognitive stage of learning?

1. getting the general idea of the movement
2. a lot of self-talk
3. development of declarative knowledge (what to do)
4. movements are attention-demanding
5. serial, slow type of information processing
6. initial large gains in performance


what are the two aspects of the motor stage in learning?

1. refinement of movement pattern
2. structures involved are task- and skill specific


what is refinement of the movement pattern?

changes in coordination


what are the 3 aspects of structures involved are task and skill specific?

1. refinement of slow tasks requires improvement in processing of "feedback"
2. refinement of fast task requires improvement in "programming"
3. movement forms become more consistent and efficient


what are the 4 stages of autonomous stage of learning?

1. little attention required
2. motor programs are responsible for the larger chunks of the action via anticipatory control
3. fast processing of sensory inputs allows an on-line corrections and ability to attend to different stimulus
4. changes in performance are more subtle (changes in control)


true or false: process always indicates learning?

false not always
changes in performance do not necessarily indicate 'learning' as various contextual factors can affect one's behavioural output only TEMPORARILY


how can we tell if learning took place?

if there were retention trials or sometimes called transfer tasks


what is the definition of constant error?

the deviation with respect to AMOUNT AND DIRECTION of the result of performer's movement relative to some target value. it represents and average location of group of responses with respect to the desired target


how do we select validity of skill

by measure of constant error


what is the problem with constant error?

often the average error is much smaller than the error for any of the single responses


what is variable error?

inconsistency of results of several movements with respect to a performer's average constant error for the movement


what does variable error measure?

does not determine whether the subject was close to the target, but rather it represents the spread around its average


what is the process measures? ( selecting valid indicators of skill)

performance observations that indicate something about the quality of movement production: can be relatively unsophisticated ( ex. qualitative description of movement through eye-balling) or more precise ( EMG; kinematics)


what are the three internal structures involved in observable products of learning?

1. stimulus identification
2. response selection
3. response programming (parameterization)


what are the three aspects of observable products of learning: coordination

1. allows inferring the nature of emerging movement patterns and their stability (consistency)
2. coordination( ex. movement smoothness) can be inferred from spatial and/or relationship between joints/body segments
3. generally inferred from kinematic data


what are the two aspects of learning observable products of learning: control

1. allows inferring the adaptability of the system
2. movement control can be inferred from kinematic data showing changes in linear/ angular displacement, velocity, and acceleration of individual joints/body segments


what are the two aspects of observable products of learning: muscles used

1. allows inferring coordination at the muscular level, hence how different muscles cooperate or complete during an action
2. inferred via EMG


what is the 3 aspects of observable products of learning: other indicators

1. movement efficiency
2. attention
3. error detection and correction


what are the two aspects of movement efficiency

1. allows inferring the amount of energy used to perform a task (ex. power)
2. inferred from kinetics


true or false higher power is associated with the performance of more skilled across different degree of resistance cyclists?



what is attention is relation to the observable products of learning: other indicators

- faster responses to stimulus (or number of them)
- Ex. Hick's law


what is Error detection and correction in relation to the observable products of learning: other indicators

-better ability to adapt movements as they unfold, particularly in face of perturbation
- ex. balance control


what are the too dimensions of attention?

1. direction (external and internal)
2. width (narrow and board)


what is external direction?

focus on information that is the consequence of the action being produced


what is internal direction?

focus on information related to body movements in the process of action productions


who did a study on internal and external focus by instructed a group of people to balance on stabilometer?

Wulf et al, 2003


what is more beneficial external or internal focus?

external focus according to Wulf's study in 2003


what is narrow focus?

focus on only few sources of information at one time


what is broad focus?

focus on a wide range of information sources


is directing attention necessary for learn?

no, the amount and type of attentional focus is constrained by the task demands and skill level of participants (ex. with time instructors are encouraged to "fade away" the cues, hence to remove attentional cues from the learning process)


in open skills what should be the attentional focus?

external focus ( environment information)


in closed skills what should be the attentional focus?

internal focus ( may be more beneficial for learning)


what can lead to "paralysis by analysis"?

internal focus


what is massing?

implies putting things together with little to no rest between periods of work


what is distributing?

implies spacing the periods of work apart with longer intervals of rest


what is distribution of practices effects on performance?

in a nutshell, use of short rest is more detrimental to performance as compared to longer rest periods


in discrete tasks what is better massed practice or distributed?

in discrete tasks, massed practice can be as "potent" as distributed


in continuous tasks, lack of rest between the bouts is detrimental to learning therefore is it massed or distribution practice?

distribution is better


Bourne & Archer 1956 conducted a study on what?

distribution and massing practices


according toe the Bourne & Archer study does it appear that in a long- run the affects of distributed type of practise remain permanent?



what are the three presentation techniques?

1. instruction (verbal)
2. demonstration
3. guidance


what is demonstration also referred to as?

"model" leading to "observational learning"


what can be the 5 learned (inferred) from modeling?

1. movement strategies for success
2. spatial information about the desired action (distance)
3. temporal information (velocity)
4. relative timing (invariant feature of GMP)
5. error detection and correction techniques


when are models most useful?

earlier in practice when the GMP is acquired


true or false a model or a video is better for learning than verbal instruction alone?



true or false: use of imperfect model coupled with appropriate KR (augmented feedback) is better than observing the "correct" model alone



what is the real issue in modelling?

not the skill level of the model but rather what type of information is being demonstrated


what is guidance?

procedure used to assist/direct individuals through the task performance, either physically, verbally and/or visually to reduce errors to make performance more efficient


what is active guidance

type of guidance procedure where the performer still performers the actual action in order to learn the general movement pattern, this type of guidance provides the performer with motor as well as sensory benefits of moving the limbs/joints, this type of guidance is as little invasive/restrictive as possible


what is passive guidance

where the performer does not perform the actual action independently, but rather with physical assistance of the instructor/practitioner, this type of guidance often used during the initial stages of learning, this type is invasive and it takes away the sensory/perceptual experience that the performer can get from performing the action


conceptually speaking, passive guidance represents an example of ___ _____ in motor learning as the context in which the skill is practiced is drastically different from the real-life situation

far transfer


what are the 4 forms of physical practice?

1. simulator practise
2. part practice
3. slow motion
4. practice for error detection


what is simulator practice?

use of training device that mimics real world activity/task (ex. driving simulator)


what are the 3 advantages to simulator practice?

1. it closely resembles the target skill/context
2. it may prevent injury when learning or relearning a skill
3. incorporated during the early stages of practice


what is part practice

approach used to learn a complex (ex. serial) skills in a more simplified form


what are the three forms of part practice?



what is fractionation

type of part practice in which one or more parts of complex skill is practiced separately (ex. arm movements in a dance)


what is segmentation

type of part practices in which one part of the target skill is practiced for a time then a second part is added to the first part and practiced together (after fractionization)


what is simplification

type of practice in which the complexity of some aspect of target skill is reduced (slowing the speed, open to close task), consistence with the notion of variable type of practice


when is part practice ineffective?

when practicing skills were the relationship between the sub-units is as important as learning of individual components


what is blocked practice?

practice sequence involving repetitions of the same task


what is random practice?

practice sequence involving different tasks in no particular order (consecutive repetition of same task is minimized or avoided)


what is the definition of concept of contextual interference

functional interference introduced into practice situation as a result of several different movement skills being practiced at the same time


true or false concept of contextual interference brings an upbeat effect on practice but is not beneficial to learning

false it has a depressing effect on practice but is beneficial


who did a study on contextual interference?

Shea & Morgan 1979


what is Shea & Morgan's study in 1979

contextual interference- using lights, they tested block and random learning


who did a practical implication of contextual interference study with batting?

Hall, Domingues & Cavazos


what are the two possible explanations for the counter-intuitive phenomena

1. elaboration hypothesis
2. forgetting/spacing hypotheses


who came up with elaboration hypothesis?

Shea & Zimny, 1983


what is the elaboration hypothesis?

random practice forces people to elaborate and discover the distinctiveness among skills results in
- more meaningful and long lasting internal representations in LTM
-more contrasts/comparison between tasks, leading to easier retrieval from STM


what is forgetting/spacing hypotheses

action pan is lost in STM and LTM once the movement is done so the process of programming has to occur all-over again in order to generate the next skill


true or false: random practice forces participants to repeatedly construct and bring up different plans once the task demands are altered. this leads to "action-plan-reconstruction" and "retrieval practice"



definition of GMP

program that defines a pattern of movements rather than a specific action


definition of parameters

variables which are changed/adapted by GMP


what is parameterization

act of assigning parameters to GMP to achieve a given task


what is the conceptual relevance of CI effect?

whereas in bloced type of practice one GMP is selected and used to generate the consecutive actions.. in random practice the performer has to go through the process of retrieval and "parameterization" of a GMP, each time a new skill has to be generated. This repeated burden of re-parameterization represents a "desirable difficult" in the practice situation


when is the random practice most effective?

- when the performer has the "general" idea of a movement ("motor stage" of learning process)
-when randomness (contextual interference) is presented gradually


what are the three concluding remarks about blocked practice

1. traditional way of teaching movement skills
2. leads to initial improvement due to stable and predictable environment
3. often it does not resemble the real-life context of the skill thus may not be beneficial to learning


what are the 3 concluding remarks about random practice?

1. appropriate when the performer has the "general" idea of movement
2. supports the notion of "specificity of practice hypothesis"
3. effective when randomness (contextual interference) is presented gradually


who said: " more variability during practice forces the creation of more general motor programs"

Schmidt's 1975


who said: " practice (learning) is a particular type of repetition without repetition"

Bernstein 1967


true or false: a GMP allows a performer to control different versions of the same class of movement



what is invariant features of GMP

those aspects of the movement that remain the same across several similar, but not same attempts


what is variant features (surface parameters)

those aspects of the movement that change across several similar attempts of one task (ex. speed, amplitude, force)


what is constant practice?

rehearsal of only one variation of a given task during a session (kicking a ball at 7m/s)


what is varied or variable practice?

rehearsal of a number of variations of a task in one session (kicking a ball at 5,6,7 m/s)


task extensions/challenges

make skills easier or harder


what are the two types of variation in setting and context?

regulatory conditions
non-regulatory conditions


what are three regulatory conditions

1. position on the court
2. trajectory of the ball
3. location/action of defender


what are two non-regulatory conditions?

1. distractions
2. fatigue


when to implement variable type of practice?

wait till they have some idea of the movement, therefore during the motor stage/advanced beginner stage


what are 4 performance changes in motor stage/advanced beginner stage

1. more movement consistency
2. less self-talk
3. better anticipation/pre-programming
4. efficient self-monitoring of feedback and error correction


how much variability is appropriate?

difficult to predict as the degree of its effectiveness is likely context (task; skill level) specific


general rule of thumb for level of variability

changes in the constraints have to be done in a way that the integrity of the skill is maintained. hence, the general qualitative nature of the movement should remain the same.


how does variable type of practice help performance?

allows transfer/generalizability across novel arrangements of the same class of actions,
allows flexibility/adaptability of the system


how is this "generalizability" developed?

forcing people to reformat GMP


what is schema development: motor programs and parameters?

a schema theory of discrete motor skill learning


what is motor schema

a set of rules relating the various outcomes of the person's actions to the parameter values the person chooses to produce the outcome


what is the 3 roles of "feedback"

1. promotes efficient learning
2. ensures correct development of a skill
3. influences learner's motivation


what is intrinsic feedback sometimes called?

inherent feedback


what is intrinsic feedback

sensory info that arises as a natural consequence of producing a movement, comes from sources outside the body (exteroception) or from within the body (proprioception)


what is extrinsic feedback also known as



what is extrinsic feedback

usually verbal or visual (demo) in nature, as opposed to intrinsic, it is provided (available) after the action was completed


what is KR

indicates the degree to which the performer achieved the desired movement outcome or environmental goal, in many real world tasks KR is redundant with intrinsic feedback


how long to give KR back?

15seconds-60 seconds


what is KP

another type of extrinsic, or augmented feedback that provides info about the quality of the movement a performer has produced


what is referred to kinematic feedback KR or KP?

KP- feedback about the displacement, velocity, acceleration, or other aspects of the movement product


true or false: KP can focus on the positive, optimal aspects of performance, the emerging errors or both



what are the 4 properties of extrinsic feedback

1. positive reinforcement of correct behaviour (provides greater improvements in learning)
2. negative reinforcement that eliminates the incorrect aspect of the response/behaviour
3. intermittent reinforcement which does not "overload" the performer the performer
4. info feedback provides performers with error-correction info.. can be descriptive or prescriptive


what is descriptive feedback?

describes the errors a learner makes during the performance of a skill "not so good that time"


what is prescriptive feedback?

describes the errors a learner makes during the performance of a kill and suggests something the learner might do to correct the errors "next time shorten your backswing a few inches" " bend the elbow"


what are the two issues to consider before providing feedback?

-skill level of participants
- task complexity


is feedback necessary for learning to take place?

not always, as the essence of implicit learning (self guided learning) is to allow the participant to figure out on their own what works and what does not


what is program feedback?

feedback related to the acquisition of the basic pattern of the action (invariant features of GMP; temporal coupling between the relevant components)


what is parameter feedback

feedback related to the errors about the surface parameters of GMP, such as a amplitude, speed and force of the movement (ex. faster, slower, longer, higher, lower)


who examined the influence of (video) KP in addition to some other augmented feedback

Kernodle & carlton 1992