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Flashcards in Research Processes Final Deck (153):
1

what is systematic

plan, identify design collect data evaluate

2

what is objective

unbiased

3

what is logical

examining the procedures allows other to evaluate the conclusions

4

what is empirical

data is collected on which conclusions are based

5

what is reductive

general relationships are established from the data

6

what is replicable

actions are recorded and can be repeated

7

what are the two types of research

applied
basic

8

what Is basic research

deals with theoretical problems
-uses the lab setting
-carefully controlled conditions
-often uses animal subjects
-produces results that have limited direct applications

9

what is applied research

addresses immediate problems
-uses the real-world setting
-limited control over research setting
-uses human participates
-results have direct value to practitioners

10

what are the three levels of the continuum of basic to applied research

level 1- basic research
level 2- moderate relevance research
level 3- applied research

11

what is level one research

basic research
goal: theory-driven
approach: lab setting

12

what is level two research

moderate relevance research
goal: theory based using related skills movements
approach: replicated real-world setting in the lab

13

what is level three research

applied research
goal: immediate solutions
approach: real-world settings

14

what are 5 unscientific methods of problem solving

tenacity
intuition
authority
the empirical method
the rationalistic method

15

what is tenacity

clinging to beliefs regardless of the lack of supporting evidence

16

what is intuition

beliefs that cannot necessarily be justified

17

what is authority

what others (parents, coaches, teachers, peers) tell you to be true

18

what is the empirical method?

relying to much on your own experience or data

19

what is rationalistic method

deriving knowledge through reasoning
- deductive vs. inductive reasoning

20

what is deductive reasoning?

proceeds from general truths to specific truths or conclusion

21

what is inductive reasoning

proceeds from specific truths to the general truths

22

what is the fundamental problem with deductive reasoning

one has to believe that first statements are true without really knowing if they are in fact true

23

what are the two kinds of inductive methods

prefect
imperfect

24

what is perfect inductive method

conclusions are based on observations of all members of a population
- typically not possible because pop is too big

25

what is imperfect inductive method

conclusions based on observations of a small sample of the pop
- most research based on imperfect
- forms basis for scientific method

26

what is delimitations

limitations imposed by the researcher in the scope of the study; a choice the researcher make to define a workable research problem

27

what are examples of delimitations

-types of participates [varsity athletes]
-test protocols being administered
-data collected or variables included in analysis
-questions being asked

28

what is limitations

possible shortcomings or influences that either cannot by controlled or is the result of the delimitations imposed by the researcher

29

what are examples of limitations

-test may not fully address research problem being addressed
-data collection errors- body comp calipers everyone testes differently
-uncontrolled variables or factors
-faulty administration of testing procedures questionnaire training program

30

what are assumptions

things you assume to be true but do not test

31

what are examples of assumptions

-testing instruments are accurate
-subjects understood directions
-effort and/or honestly by participates

32

what is the operational definition

a clear, concise detailed definition of a variable that explains exactly how it will be measured
-important to define exact qualifications of measured variable

33

what is a research hypothesis

a tentative explanation or prediction of the eventual outcome of a research problem

34

what are characteristics of a research hypothesis

-relation between at least two variables
-simple, clear statement
-based on theory
-testable
-capable of being refuted

35

what is a directional hypothesis

prediction of a specific result
- collegiate volleyball player will demonstrate faster reaction times than high school level players

36

what is a non-directional hypothesis

prediction of a difference
-there will be a different in VO2 mac between collegiate level distance runners who strength train and those who do not

37

what is a null hypothesis

Hₒ is the symbol
-used for statistical testing
-stats that there will be no differences between groups or variables
- IV will have no effect on DV

38

what is hypothesis testing

involves determining the likelihood (probability) that the observed outcome is a result a chance occurrence
-can reject or accept Hₒ

39

research proposal should be written in _____ tense

future

40

what is the maxicon principle

-max true variance ( the odds that the real relationship will be found)
-min error variance( reduce all the mistakes that cold creep into a study to disguise the true relationship)
-control extraneous variance (make sure the rival hypotheses are the real explanation of the relationship)

41

what is variance

the variability of a measurement

42

what are the three questions to asking when recruiting participants

1. are participants with special characteristics necessary for your research?
2. can you obtain the necessary permission and cooperation from your participants
3. can you find enough participants

43

what is a population

entire group of people or elements of interests having one or more common characteristics

44

what is the element

basic unit from which the data is collected

45

what is the sample

a subgroup of the population from which the data will be collected

46

what is population validity

the extent to which the results from the sample can be generalized the to the population

47

what are the two types of sampling methods

probability sampling
non-probability sampling

48

what is probability sampling

probability of selecting each participant is known
-random process(es) are used to select participants

49

what is non-probability sampling

probability of selecting each participants is not known
-participants are not randomly selected

50

what is sampling error

the extent to which sample values deviate from those that would be obtained from the entire population
-how different is sample from population; ideally no difference

51

what is normal distribution

-bell-shaped curve
-mean value is the middle (mean)
-most individual values close to mean
-number of individuals fall off rapidly towards the extreme values

52

what is simple random sampling

-everyone individual has equal chance of being selected
-selection of one person does not interfere without anyone else
-considered biased free (entirely based on chance)

53

what is the fishbowl technique

names of everyone in pop are put in a hate and sample is drawn

54

what is the random number table

assign numbers to members of pop use table to determine which members will be selected for sample

55

what is stratified random sampling

divide pop into various subgroups based on characteristic important to study, research participants randomly selected from each subgroup

56

what is systematic sampling

sample is drawn from very kth participant from a lost of pop
-if list random, systematic is okay
- if list is not random- slight biased

57

what is multistage sampling

successive random selection of smaller groups (samples) within larger groups
-ex. studying injury rate sin hockey players in Ontario

58

what are the 5 probability sampling techniques

simple random sampling
procedure to obtain random sample
stratified random sample
systematic sampling
multistage sampling

59

what are the 4 non-probability sampling

purposive sampling
convenience sampling
snowball sampling
extreme cases

60

what is purposive sampling

-researcher knows a specific characteristic exists in population
-participant selected who possess the characteristic
-used in many disciplines in kin
-ex. intact groups or teams

61

what is convenience sampling

-selection of participants because they are accessible and convenient to the researcher
-ex. volunteers, students

62

what is snowball sampling

-initial participants are recruited, who in turn identify additional potential participants

63

what is extreme cases

-participants are recruited because the are extreme examples of some characteristic

64

what is sample size

number of participants selected as a sample for a research study

65

what is the key factor of sample size

whether or not sample is representative of the population

66

what are the 3 factors that influence sample size

1. use of statistical tests to analyse the data
2. type of research approach being used
3. method used to recruit participants

67

what are the three characteristics that instruments must have?

objectivity
reliability
validity

68

what is reliability

consistent each time the instrument is used

69

what is validity

instrument measures what it is suppose to measure

70

what are the three ways data can be collected

measurement techniques
observation techniques
questioning techniques

71

what are three types of measuring techniques

physical measures
cognitive measures
affective measures

72

what are physical measures

-direct and/or indirect measurements of a participant
-many examples in kin- biomechanics, physiology, motor control

73

what are cognitive measures

-knowledgeable acquisitions- tests/exams in education rules tests certification test

74

what are affective measures

measurement of feelings/emotions, opinions, attitudes, personality, motivation

75

what are the two observation techniques

direct observation
indirect observation

76

what is direct observations

-participant know they are being observed and why
-observers id present during observation, may influence results

77

what is indirect observations

-participants are observed with or without their knowledge
-video often used
-less risk of observer influence

78

what are the 4 common scaling techniques

rating scale
semantic differential scale
rank order scale
likert scale

79

what is ranking scale

-individual items are judged on a single dimension and scored on a linear scale or continuum
-a numerical or verbal point on the scale is selected that corresponds to their impression of the item

80

what are the two types of ranking scale

numerical scale
verbal scale

81

what is the numerical scale

how important to you is each of the issues listed below

82

what is verbal rating scale

team performance-common goals (no, moderate importance, greatest importance)

83

what is semantic differential scale

scale method designed for measuring ones 'image' of a selected topic or concept
place an x on the line below

84

what is rank order scale

items are ranked usually in terms of preference of importance, relative to each other
forced ranking

85

what is likert scale

a scaling technique which measures the respondent's degree of agreement or disagreement on an issue, opinion or particular belief
'strongly agree, agree....

86

what are the 7 questioning techniques

1. structured questionnaire
2. unstructured questionnaire
3. checklist
4. structured interview
5. unstructured interview
6. focus group interview
7. Delphi technique

87

what is Delphi technique

-question method used to get consensus from a defined group on a specific topic
-individuals responds to questions
-individuals then revise their positions based on group trends/results
-revision continue until group consensus is formed

88

what are the 4 types of validity

local validity/ face validity
content validity
criterion validity
construct validity

89

what is local validity/face validity

-the degree to which a test or instrument obviously involves the performance being measured
-determined subjectively

90

what is content validity

the degree to which a test adequately sample what is covered in a course (education setting)

91

what is criterion validity

the degree to which scores on a test are related to some recognized standard or criterion

92

what are the two types of criterion validity

concurrent validity
predictive validity

93

what is concurrent validity

a measuring instrument us correlated with some criterion instrument that is administered concurrently or at about the same time

94

what is predictive validity

the degree to which scores of predictor variables can accurately predict criterion scores

95

what is construct validity

the degree to which a test measures a hypothetical construct

96

what is construct

abstract concept that cannot be directly measured or observed
example: anxiety

97

what is a subtype of construct validity

known group validity

98

what is group validity

the test scores of groups that should differ on a trait or ability are compared to determine if they are, in fact different

99

what are the two types of reliability

test retest reliability
inter-rater reliability

100

what is inter-rater reliability

a measure of the consistent of scores of measurements when different individuals conduct the same test

101

what are four sources of measurement error

participant
testing
scoring
instrumentation

102

what are the three criteria that must be present for experimental research

1. the cause must precede the effect in times
2. the cause and effect must be correlated with each other
3. the correlation between cause and effect cannot be explained by another variable

103

in experimental research there are two types of validity

internal validity
external validity

104

what is internal validity

validity of the findings within or internal to the research study; the technique soundness of a study; the technical soundness of a study, particularly concerned with the control of extraneous influences that might effect the outcome

105

what is external validity

the degree to which the findings can be inferred to the population of interest or to other populations or settings; the generalizability of the results

106

what are 9 threats to internal validity

history
maturation
testing
instrumentation
statistical regression
selection bases
experimental mortality
selection-maturation interaction
expectancy

107

what are 4 threats to external validity

reaction or interaction effects of testing
interaction of selection biases and treatment
reactive affects of experimental arrangements
multiple-treatment interference

108

what are three controlling threats to internal validity

randomization
placebos
blinding

109

what are the uncontrolled threats to internal validity

reactive effective testing
instrumentation
experimental mortality

110

what is reactive effect testing

can be controlled by eliminating the pretest

111

what is the controlled threats to external validity

external validity cab be controlled by selecting participants, treatments, experimental situations and tests to represent some larger population

112

what are the three types od design

1. pre-experimental
2. true experimental
3. quasi-experimental

113

what is pre-experimental

does not randomly assign participants to groups; control few sources of invalidity

114

what is true experimental

groups are randomly assigned; controls most sources of invalidity

115

what is quasi-experimental

experimenter trues to for design to real-world setting while still controlling as many threats to internal validity as possible

116

what 6 types of descriptive research

survey
case study
developmental research
normative research
correlation research
observational research

117

what is a survey

determines views, opinion, or practices of a group through interviews or questionnaires

118

what three types of case studies are there

descriptive studies
interpretive studies
evaluative studies

119

what is a case study

studying a single case in depth to reach a greater understanding about a phenomenon or other similar causes

120

what is descriptive studies

provides detailed information about the topic of interest vou does not attempt to test a build theoretical model

121

what is interpretive studies

the focus is to interpret the data to conceptualize the information and theorize about the topic of interest

122

what is evaluative studies

evaluate the merit of some practice, program, movement or event

123

what is developmental research

study of the changes in behaviour across years

124

what are the two approaches of developmental research

longitudinal
cross sectional

125

what is normative research

normative research develops the performances standards which are based on large representative sample of the population

126

what are the two types of normative research

norm referenced
criterion referenced

127

what is norm referenced

rank order individuals from the best to worst in percentile ranks

128

what is criterion referenced

min proficiency or pass/fail standards

129

what is correlational research

determines if relations exist between two variables

130

what is observational research

research in which the data are the observations made of people or situations
data collection and analysis are time consuming

131

what are the four survey methods

phone interview
personal interview
administers questionnaires
distributed questionnaires

132

what is an administered questionnaire

questionnaire is give to participants at one time or to several groups at different times (in class, team)

133

what is a distributed questionnaire

used when sample is spread over a large geographic area, through mail

134

what are three questionnaire designs

open-ended
completion
multiple choice (close ended)

135

what are the 7 characteristics of qualitative research

1. natural setting
2. researcher as an instrument
3. emergent approach
4. interpretive approach
5 a holistic view
6 reflexivity and subjectivity
7 use of inductive analysis

136

competency is established through:

credibility
transferability
dependability
conformability

137

what is credibility

achieved when participants and setting are observed accurately (Internal validity)

138

what is transferability

whether the results can be transferred to other setting (external validity)

139

what is dependability

the quality of the data; how well the researcher deals with change (reliability)

140

what is conformability

data is collected without bias (objectivity)

141

researchers assign meaning to data with [3]

analytic narrative
narrative vignette
using quotes and examples to support ideas

142

one or more of the following will be used when analyzing data

triangulation
negative case checking
member checking
peer debriefing

143

what are the four types of qualitative research

phenomenological research
grounded theory
case study
ethnographical research

144

what is phenomenological research

the study of phenomena. it is a way of describing something that exists as part of the world in which we live. will not necessarily proved definite explanations

145

what is grounded theory

involves the development of new theory through the collection and analysis of data about a phenomenon

146

what is a case study

an in-depth analysis of single event, activity, process or individual
provides an intensive holistic understanding of a single unit

147

what is ethnographical research

ethnography means 'portrait of a people' it is a methodology for descriptive studying of cultures and people. the cultural parameter is that people under investigation have something in common: (geographical, religious, tribal, shared experiences )

148

what is effect size

an estimate of the practice difference between the mean values of two groups; it is the standard unit of measure used in a meta-analysis

149

what is epidemiological research

examines the distribution and determinates of health related states in specific populations and the application of this study to the control of health problems

150

what are the three components of epidemiological research

distribution
determinants
application

151

what are the 4 types of epidemiological designs

cross sectional research
ecological research
cohort studies (prospective studies)
case-control studies

152

what is cohort studies

a group is observed over a period of time, often many years

153

what is ecological research

uses existing data sources for both exposure and disease outcomes to examine rates of disease by specific characteristics of an entire population