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Flashcards in Adaptive Phsyical Activity Deck (175):
1

What is an impairment

a loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological and/or anatomical structures. May be temporary or permanent

2

what is: a loss if abnormality of psychological, physiological and/or anatomical structures. May be temporary or permanent

impairment

3

what is disability

a loss reduction, restriction leading to lack of ability to perform activities [every day] efficiently and effectively

4

what is: a loss reduction, restriction leading to lack of ability to perform activities [ every day] effectively and efficiently

disability

5

what is handicap

a condition produced by societal, personal and environmental barriers

6

what is: a condition produced by a societal, personal and environment barriers

handicap

7

being unable to hear is a ___________.

impairment

8

being unable to communicate because people refuse to use sign language or exchange written notes is a _______

disability

9

being unable to walk is a_______

impairment

10

being unable to get in a building because the doors are too narrow for your wheelchair is a ______

disability

11

how is an impairment establish

through examination and testing

12

true or false the impairment alone determines the disability

false

13

is impairment consider objective or subjective

objective

14

is disability considered objective or subjective

subjective

15

individuals with the same degree of impairment do they have the same disability

no, it is subjective

16

what is adaptive physical activity

adaptive: implies change, modification or adjustment of goal, objective or instruction

17

what are the three barriers to inclusive process

personal factors
task factors
context factors

18

what are personal factors [4]

knowledge
self-efficacy and motivation
perceived risks
entrenched patterns of inactivity

19

what are: knowledge
self efficacy& motivation
perceived risks
entrenched patterns if inactivity

personal factors

20

what are inclusive physical activity [3]

Acceptance
access
accommodations

21

what are: acceptance
access
accommodations

inclusive physical activity

22

what are task factors

equipment
activity selection

23

what is: equipment and activity selection

task factors

24

what are context factors

attitudes
labeling and language
perceived professional competency
accessibility
administrative support

25

what is: attitudes
labeling and language
perceived professional competency
accessibility
administrative support

context factors

26

what is context specific

external arising from people or places [ environmental]

27

what is: external arising from people or places [environmental]

context specific / context factors

28

what is person factors related to:

internal to the person

29

what does task related to

related to the activity

30

expand on context specific attitudes

attitudes: idea[s] charged with emotion leading to behaviours/actions in a specific situation

31

what are the two ways attitudes[context specific] are reflected in

1. the way people fell [ people with disabilities are always depressed; children with disabilities are not smart]
2. he way people behave[ people with disabilities should not be hired because they are incompetent, I do not have time or resources to create an integrated environment]

32

What are the 4 ways attitudes towards people are affected

1. social factors
2. physical factors
3. person experience
4. familiarity

33

what is do these affect:
1. social factors
2. physical factors
3. personal experience
4. familiarity

effectors of attitudes towards people

34

what are the effects of negative attitudes

1. care-givers attitudes impact the success of an inclusive program[ degree of 'difference' affects the nature of attitudes ]
2. lack of acceptance of program participants also inhibits inclusive process
3. likely the nature of attitudes of teachers correlates with the attitudes of 'typically' functioning students

35

what are the three strategies for fostering acceptance attitudes

1. through exposure to relevant information
2. through simulation activities
3. through personal experience[ contact theory]

36

who came up with the contact theory and when

Allport 1954

37

what does the contact theory assume

1. that contact between individuals with differences produces positive attitudes when interactions are:
-frequent
-pleasant
-meaningful
2. the interactions must be also:
-planned
-off equal status
-long
-cooperative

38

what theory assumes: that contact between individuals with differences produces positive attitudes when interactions are: frequent, pleasant, meaningful and the interactions must also be: planned off equal status long and cooperative

contact theory

39

what are the behaviour changes after contact theory was implicated

- voluntary/ spontaneous
- carried over into leisure
- equal status
-frequent
-long

40

what are the attitudes changes after contact theory was implicated

opinions and beliefs
emotions and feelings
behavioural intentions

41

what is consider structured contacts

-frequent
-interactive
-focused on common goals
-meaningful
-promoting respect
-long

42

what is the preparation for structured contacts

assessment, planning and training

43

what are the positive side effects of labeling and language[ contest factors]

labels often may represent prerequisite for receiving services, funding, legal support and access to programs

44

what are the negative side effects of labeling and language [context factors] [6]

-stresses differences rather than similarities
-stresses individual deficits rather than societal and contextual factors
-stresses what one cannot do rather than emphasizing what one is able to achieve
-reduces individuality [uniqueness]
results in stereotyping
-implies stability/persistency of an issue

45

what are the two perceived professional competency [context factor]

-lack of collaboration between teachers and inadequate training of the professionals also represent essential barriers to an affective inclusive process
-lack of perceived competency to 'deal' with individuals with disabilities represents a critical factor

46

true or false : positive beliefs of teachers essential for quality instruction in an inclusive setting

true

47

what are the beliefs about teaching children with disabilities may be affected by:

perceived competence in teaching
amount of experience with children with disabilities
amount of training
type of disability present

48

Discussion on table 2 illustrating overall attitude... what did the teachers show little willingness

[negative belief] towards teaching children with cognitive and behavioural disabilities but had more favorable attitudes towards those with learning disabilities

49

discussion on table 2 illustrating overall attitude.. what is the strongest predictor of overall positive attitudes towards students with disabilities

perceived competency

50

true or false : taking adapted courses helps establish positive beliefs in teachers

true

51

what is accessibility [context factor]

accessibility barriers constitute anything that prevents an individual's equal access and opportunity to facilities and programs

52

what are three barriers to accessibility

communication issues
transportation constraints
economic limitations

53

what is administrative support issues related to

-facility availability and scheduling
-financial support for the required equipment
-time for increased training and professional development
-number/availability of support personnel [ex. SSP in Canadian school systems ]

54

what is knowledge [ personal factor]

-does 'exercising' affect my health/quality of life positively
-does the program exist?
-what rights do I have in regards to the access?
-is the necessary support available

55

what is motivation [personal factor] quote

'people who are intrinsically motivated are likely to engage in physical activity more often, for a longer period of time and more meaningfully'

56

what is motivation

is the activation or energization of goal-orientated behaviour motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic

57

what is self-efficacy

[perceived competency ] is people's believe about their capabilities to produce effects/desired outcomes

58

what quote from Bandura 1977

'intrinsic motivation has its roots in a person self-efficacy or belief about his/her capabilities to perform a specific activity or attain a desired outcome'

59

who came up with self-determination

Deci & Ryan 1985

60

what is self-determination theory

a person is intrinsically motivated when he/she has a high degree of sense of belonging, perceived competency and locus of control over life events

61

what are the three characteristics of the self-determination model

sense of belonging [relatedness]
locus of control
competency

62

what is sense of belonging [relatedness]

perception that a person is a vita/active part of the group and/or of the related processes

63

what is locus of control

perception of connection between one's actions and their consequences

64

what is competency

perception that one's abilities afford a functional completion of the task or more generally being successful at a particular activity

65

what are the two strategies for increasing confidence and motivation

1. programs/activities have to be enjoyable and nonthreatening
2. programs/activities can be successful, yet the dignity of risk also has to be preserved

66

what are the perceived risks of person related barriers

benefit-cost of participating related to physical as well as psychological well-being

67

what are the entrenched patterns of inactivity for person related barriers

-only 30% of older adults exercise regularly
-social status [low-income] demographic [race] and the degrees of perceptuo-motor cognitive [dys] function all may affect participation

68

equipment for task factors can vary in

weight, size, shape, height, speed, distance, sound, colour, trajectory, direction, surface contact, surface or texture, length and residency

69

how does activity selection and rules of the game chosen

-activities and their rules as well as their goals should be chosen based on participants
- individual characteristics
-interests
-needs [functional value/meaningfulness]
-resources

70

what are some individual characteristics to consider

experience
age
genetics
medical condition
abilities

71

what are 5 simple skill descriptors

closed skill
individual
single skill or concept
cooperative
offense

72

what are 5 complex skill descriptors

open skill
partner to small group
combined skill or concept
competitive
defense

73

atypical motor development can emerge due to

individual constraints
task constraints
environmental constraints

74

what model is individual, task and environmental constraints apart of

Newell model 1986

75

what are some individual constraints

also known as rate limiters [strength in infants] can be a various nature
-muscle spasticity
-weight/height
-perceptuo-motor integration
-inability to learn
-cognitive dysfunction

76

how do we know if someone is 'atypical'?

-notion of universality/ 'normality'
-norm [norm reference tests]
-template/criteria [criterion referenced tests]

77

is development a linear process

no, developmental sequences across the lifespan are universal, yet some variability exists, particularly as we grow older

78

what are the two environmental impact on the Newell model

1. experience expectant development
2. experience dependent development

79

what is experience development

universal experiences across lifespan [ development of language]

80

what is experience dependent development

accounts for variability of individual differences across people

81

what is typical motor development

an assumption that most humans share similar genetics and that they will respond to the surround environment

82

true or false Changes/ differences in initial conditions can lead to atypical development that can have short [ADHA] or long term effects on ones well being

true

83

true of false differences in initial condition occur [ex problems at birth ] the environment will have a different effect on the development of that individual

true

84

true or false disturbance occurring during the 'sensitive' /critical times may have long lasting effects on development

true

85

atypical development can be caused by:

genetic differences
environmental or experiential differences
combination of the two

86

syndrome:

the presence of multiple anomalies in the same individual [in the human embryo with all od the anomalies having a single cause

87

what is: the presence of multiple anomalies in the same individual [ in the human embryo] with all of the anomalies having a single cause

syndrome

88

birth defect:

present at birth, whether a result of a genetic mutation or some other non-genetic factor

89

what is: present at birth whether a result of a genetic mutation or some other non-genetic factor

birth defect

90

intellectual disability

a significant sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behaviour and manifested during the developmental period

91

what is: a significant sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in the adaptive behaviour and manifested during the developmental period

intellectual disability

92

significant sub-average intellectual functioning

an IQ which is 2 SD below the mean. thus any IQ which is at or below 70 on a standardized intelligence test represents an intellectual impairment

93

what: an IQ which is 2 SD below the mean. thus any IQ which is at or below 70 on a standardized intelligence test represents an intellectual impairment

significant sub-average intellectual functioning

94

how many chromosomes does an average person have

46

95

what is a karyotype

test in which blood or skin samples are checked for the number and type of chromosomes

96

what chromosome pattern does 95% of people with down syndrome have

trisomy 21

97

what is this a fact of: genetic condition causing delays in physical and intellectual development

down syndrome

98

what occurs in approximately one in every 1000 live births

down syndrome

99

what is not related to race nationality religion or socioeconomic

down syndrome

100

true or false the DS continuum is very narrow

false it is broad

101

what is DS usually caused by

an error in cell division called non-disjunction during meiosis

102

what does the error occur for DS

conception

103

true or false incidences of DS increase with advancing maternal age

true

104

what is a lack of muscle tone

hypotomia

105

what is the most important limiters on the development of fundamental movement skills and achievement of motor milestones [grasping, sitting, rolling and pulling to stand]

hypotomia

106

true or false in DS laxity in joint and poor muscle tone balance control resulting in more sway as well as more frequent and large adaptions

true

107

true or false balance issues in DS may have pronounced functional effects resulting in delayed onset of locomotion and coinciding development of preceptup-motor functioning and sensory integration

true

108

true or false balance in DS in turn may affect the development of cognitive system which status is already jeopardized due to genetic differences

true

109

what was the test called concerned with locomotion in people with DS

treadmill training of infants with down syndrome: evidence-based developmental outcomes

110

what is the result of the DS children on treadmills

-enhance ability to attain motor milestones
-may not be qualitative [kinematic] but can reduce stiffness in DCD
-improve their movement patterns but never typical

111

what is the cause of DS

unknown

112

is the DS population homogeneous

false, heterogeneous

113

is cerebral palsy a genetic abnormality

no

114

what causes CP

detrimental impact on environmental constraints on developing organism

115

what is a detrimental impact of the environment that could cause CP

lack of oxygen supply due to trauma
prolonged exposure to chemicals[smoke, alcohol]

116

is CP a neurological disorder

yes

117

is CP progressive

no

118

in CP is their peripheral system intact

yes

119

where do the problems on CP come from

brain lesions

120

true or false for people with CP: atrophy, however can worsen muscular symptoms and in children prevent proper growth

true

121

is CP heterogeneous

yes

122

3 complications of CP children at birth

1. majority born with condition
2. 2/1000 more common in males
3. premature infants are more likely to acquire CP

123

when are signs of CP first noticed

approx. 6 months

124

what is the most common form of CP

spastic cerebral palsy

125

what percent of CP have spastic CP

70%

126

in what CP do muscles tend to be permanently contracted

spastic CP

127

affecting limbs grow more slowly than healthy ones, producing unusually small feet

spastic CP

128

what results from over-firing of motor [efferent] neurons due to imbalance in excitory and inhibitory neurons at the spinal column

spastic CP

129

what are the 5 types of spastic CP based on limbs affected

hemipigia dipiagia qudripiegia monopiegia tripiegia

130

what kind of CP affects 1 in 10 diagnosed

athetoid CP

131

what CP is characterized by slow uncontrolled movement usually in limbs

athetoid CP

132

what CP affect facial muscles

athetoid CP

133

what CP affects fewer than 1 in 10

ataxic CP

134

what CP is characterized by poor coordination of limbs and balance

ataxic CP

135

what CP has difficulties with quick precise movements like writing

ataxic CP

136

what interventions to attempt to normalize the gait of CP people has it been affective

no

137

what is the assessment method for CP called

Gross motor classification system GMCS

138

can appropriate interventions enhance the motor capacity of individuals with CP

yes as it is non progressive

139

what difficulties do autistic children face

1. impaired social interactions
2. impaired communication
. restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns or behaviours, interests and activities

140

is ASD a neuro-developmental disorder

yes

141

what is the cause of ASD

unknown

142

what do people believed is linked to the increased causes of ASD in the 90s

vaccinations

143

is ASD heterogeneous

yes

144

what are some of the physical characteristics of ASD

-hypotomia
-delayed milestones

145

true or false as children get older the delays in both gross and fine motor skills become more pronounced as compared to the typically developing

true

146

what particular areas do ASD struggle with

manual dexterity
prehension
graph motor skills

147

according to DSM IV do movement problems constitute a diagnosis for ASD

no

148

according to 'mean motor and gesture test scores and standard errors by group' children with ASD scored poorly incomparsion in what categories

strength, agility coordination and fine motor skills
and gestural difficulties

149

what does DCD stand for

developmental coordination disorder

150

how did Bagley categorize kids and what year

1900- very clever, clever, medium, awkward and very awkward

151

who categorized kids by very clever, clever, medium, awkward, very awkward

Bagley in 1900

152

what found: poor muscular coordination in children due to issues in nervous system

Lippitt 1926

153

what did Lippitt find

poor coordination in children due to issues in nervous system in 1926

154

what found: developmental apraxia, failure in the development of normal skills

orton 1937

155

what is Orton find

developmental apraxia, failure in development of normal skills in 1937

156

what are the 7 qualitative characteristics of DCD population

clumsy
awkward
motor infantilism
[dis] coordinated
slow
spastic
rigid

157

what needs to be met in order to get a formal diagnosis [DSM IV]

1. significantly interferes with academics or daily living
2. is not due to a general medical condition
3. is not caused by intellectual disability

158

what are the 4 issues with diagnosis of DCD

terminology
cut-off scores
definition of ADL and AA
etiology

159

DCD terminology development delay:

process of reaching the optimal most mature level of functioning has ben postponed, put off or hindered for a time

160

what DVD terminology is: process of reaching the optimal most mature level of functiomning has been postpones, put off, or hindered for a time

developmental delay

161

what DCD terminology coordination

the definition of coordination differs depending on the level of analysis and conceptual standpoint

162

what DCD term differs

coordination

163

what is DCD:

not a delay, it is a deficit as the perceptual, motor psychological and behavioural problems persist into adolescence/ adulthood

164

is DCD due to a general medical condition

no

165

children with DCD do have:

lesions, atypically developed cerebellums

166

what are four potential causes of DCD

1. minimal brain damage
2. developmental dyspraxia
3. perceptual-motor dysfunction
4. sensory-integration dysfunction

167

what do the 5 C's describe

DCD

168

what are the 5 C's

common
clumsy children
chronic health condition
Co-morbid
consequences

169

Common:

Prevalence 6-22%
criteria 5vs. 15%
more often in males

170

Chronic health condition

a deficit not a delay

171

Comorbidity issue

50% have learning disabilities
50% have ADHD
40-90% language impairment

172

what made the vicious circle

Tad Wall 1982

173

What is in the middle of the vicious circle

poor motor skills

174

etiology of DCD

unknown

175

is DCD heterogeneous

yes