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1

the processes of cognition include: (5)

1. sensory system
2. memory
3. intelligence
4. creativity
5. wisdom

2

memory refers to..

the acquisition and retrieval of information

3

who created the 3 stage model and what year

William James
1890

4

what does the 3 stage model include, in order

sensory memory
short-term memory
long-term memory

5

sensory member stores..

information received from the environment for a very brief interval

6

the terms for memory traces associated with different sensory systems include icons if the info is ___ and ____ if ____

visual
echoes if auditory

7

what is likely a cause of decline in iconic memory?

deficiencies in short-term memory

little difference in age

8

short term memory is..

an intermediate stage between sensory memory and long term storage

9

what are the two types of short term memory?

primary memory
working memory

10

what is primary memory?

able to recall single auditory presentation - digits forward test

11

what is working memory

involves mental manipulation of the information in consciousness into a form appropriate for long term storage

12

what is long term memory?

refers to a large capacity storage system in which memories reside over prolonged duration

13

what are the 4 types of long term memory?

1. episodic memory
2. semantic memory
3. procedural memory
4. prospective memory

14

what does episodic memory refer to?

the remembering of discrete events

15

what does semantic memory include?

knowledge about concepts or events not necessarily associated with a single episode of acquisition (provinces of Canada)

16

procedural involves?

the retention of skill (driving)

17

prospective memory?

is remembering to do something at a future time

18

in _____ task it is reported that younger people report they ____ items previously presented, older people more often report___ that the items were present.

recognition
remember
knowing

19

the process of acquisition relates to the kinds of activity performed in ____ memory

working

20

true or false older people can organize material for later retrieval as effectively as young people do

true

21

what is two reasons Shonfield and Robertson (1966) could explain the loss with age in recall of information is less than the age loss in recognition of that information

one: recall invokes only episodic memory whereas recognition brings semantic memory into play

two:recall requires organization, older people are just as cable as younger in regards recall

22

what age group has a high frequency of autobiographical memories

10-30 years

23

what age do your earliest memories comes from

4 1/2

24

what was Wittlinger (1975) findings about high school classmates

recall fell sharply during the first three years since leaving the school, but remained consistently above 60% until twenty-five years after graduation, after which time it continued to decline

25

meta memory refers to..

people's knowledge and beliefs about memory, including their own memory

26

do older or younger people have a more frequent negative evaluations with memory

older

27

do older or younger people report more memory failures

younger

28

Hess and Pullen (1996) review shows..

relationship between meta memory and actual memory performance to be minimal

29

what is self-efficacy in memory related to?

meta memory

30

what are the two types of intelligence?

fluid intelligence
crystallized intelligence