Flashcards in psychology of age -exam 3 Deck (55)
the processes of cognition include: (5)
1. sensory system
memory refers to..
the acquisition and retrieval of information
who created the 3 stage model and what year
what does the 3 stage model include, in order
sensory member stores..
information received from the environment for a very brief interval
the terms for memory traces associated with different sensory systems include icons if the info is ___ and ____ if ____
echoes if auditory
what is likely a cause of decline in iconic memory?
deficiencies in short-term memory
little difference in age
short term memory is..
an intermediate stage between sensory memory and long term storage
what are the two types of short term memory?
what is primary memory?
able to recall single auditory presentation - digits forward test
what is working memory
involves mental manipulation of the information in consciousness into a form appropriate for long term storage
what is long term memory?
refers to a large capacity storage system in which memories reside over prolonged duration
what are the 4 types of long term memory?
1. episodic memory
2. semantic memory
3. procedural memory
4. prospective memory
what does episodic memory refer to?
the remembering of discrete events
what does semantic memory include?
knowledge about concepts or events not necessarily associated with a single episode of acquisition (provinces of Canada)
the retention of skill (driving)
is remembering to do something at a future time
in _____ task it is reported that younger people report they ____ items previously presented, older people more often report___ that the items were present.
the process of acquisition relates to the kinds of activity performed in ____ memory
true or false older people can organize material for later retrieval as effectively as young people do
what is two reasons Shonfield and Robertson (1966) could explain the loss with age in recall of information is less than the age loss in recognition of that information
one: recall invokes only episodic memory whereas recognition brings semantic memory into play
two:recall requires organization, older people are just as cable as younger in regards recall
what age group has a high frequency of autobiographical memories
what age do your earliest memories comes from
what was Wittlinger (1975) findings about high school classmates
recall fell sharply during the first three years since leaving the school, but remained consistently above 60% until twenty-five years after graduation, after which time it continued to decline
meta memory refers to..
people's knowledge and beliefs about memory, including their own memory
do older or younger people have a more frequent negative evaluations with memory
do older or younger people report more memory failures
Hess and Pullen (1996) review shows..
relationship between meta memory and actual memory performance to be minimal
what is self-efficacy in memory related to?
what are the two types of intelligence?
what does fluid intelligence refer to..
mental abilities not acquired by learning from one's culture, but which may reflect individual differences in the integrity of the CNS.
crystallized intelligence refer to..
problem solving skills acquired from the culture
what type of intelligence declines shortly after adolescence due to brain change?
what type of intelligence continues to increase until advanced age? (cross-sectional)
Wechsler (1972) noted steeper___ on spatial rather than ____ tasks due only partially to declining speed of performance (cross-sectional)
Schaie and Willis (1993) found _____ ability and ____ ability to show no substantial loss until age 6-70 years (cross sectional)
Canadian longitudinal studies found ___ loses over 40+ years but slight gain if given extra time to solve problems with gains more likely on ___ task and loses more likely on __ tasks
Schaie longitudinal test found what age to have little to no decline
true or false low scores of intelligence correlated in death
what are the three main paradigms in which expertise fall in?
1. comparisons between experts and others regarding the attributes of expect performance
2. research on creativity
3. studies that attempt to elucidate the properties of wisdom
what study did salthouse (1984) conduct
what is convergent thinking?
giving the standard purpose for an object
what is divergent thinking?
thinking outside of the box giving multiple purposes for an object
true or false there was a connection between vocabulary and divergent thinking
what did Lehman (1953) suggest about creativity?
peaked in thirties then declined with age
what did Dennis (1966) suggest about creativity?
accumulation of creativity therefore most creative in 60s
what did Simonton (1990) suggest about creativity?
concluded period of high productivity coincided with highest rate f producing masterpieces.
implies good judgement in important but uncertain matters of like
what are the two basic dimensions of wisdom?
1. mechanics of mind
2. pragmatics of mind
the former refers to..
the basic info processing system, and the latter to factual and strategic knowledge and their relationship to problem solve in real life situations
wisdom implies the application of expert knowledge that includes knowledge: (4)
1. (both factual and strategic) about basic pragmatics of life
2. about the uncertainties
3. about context
4. that is appreciative of the relativism of values and goals in life
what are the three factors that Blats & staudinger (1993) affect wisdom
1. wisdom is likely to increase with the knowledge gained through life experience
2. personality traits such as openness to experience may fosters one's knowledge about uncertainties and relativism
3. specific experiences relevant to decision-making may promote wisdom about those life domains,
what is a mater athlete?
competitors beyond the age of peak performance
what is the peak performance age of swimmers?