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Flashcards in Weight Management & Health Promotion Midterm Deck (46)
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1

what is adipocytes?

a cell specialized for the storage of fat, found in connective tissue

2

how is BMI calculated?

kg/M(squared)

3

what are 2 consequences of having central adiposity?

1. immobilizes fat cells
2. compresses vital organs and can lead to chronic disease

4

how is BMI measured for children?

percentile charts
(babies increase BMI sharply, toddlers decrease childhood and adolescents increase)

5

what is the agreed upon accepted level of fatness in kids?

TRICK, there is none

6

approx. what is the percent of an obese adolescents becoming an obese young adult?

70-80%

7

what are the four main consequences of obesity & over weight?

1. diminished health & psycho-social well-being
2. reduced socioeconomic prospects
3. Lower economic productivity of workforce
4. higher healthcare costs

8

what are the 5 risks of central adiposity in relation to CVD

1. increased fat cell number
2. higher rate of blood flow
3. elevated cortisol receptor number
4. elevated androgen receptor number
5. increased catecholamine-induced lipolysis (immobilizes)

9

what are the 5 risk factors for metabolic syndrome

1. central adipose
2. low HDL
3. high triglycerides
4. hypertension
5. impaired fasting glucose

10

what are the 3 ways to expend energy?

1. RMR-60-70%
2. thermic effect of food- 10%
3. Physical activity- no number as we control it!

11

what is the limit for fat storage?

NO LIMIT

12

what is the delbuof illusion?

the illusion of there being more or less food based on the plate size

13

paternal obesity is __ times more likely to result in child obesity and maternal obesity is ___ times more likely?

2
4

14

what is the definition of fat shaming?

judging/discriminating against because of their size

15

where do weight bias take place?(4 settings)

-employment setting
-medical setting
-interpersonal setting
-educational setting

16

what are the two pain responses to internalizing social stereotypes?

1. attempting to lose weight
2. turn to food/refuse to diet

17

what are 4 assertive coping strategies

- confronting perpetrator
- formal complaints (work setting)
- public social groups (strength in #'s)
- asserting body acceptance

18

what are two self protection strategies?

- placing less value on bias
- avoiding social interactions

19

what are four main causes for weight bias?

- cultural transmission
- media & negative stereotypes
- belief in controllability of weight
- belief in a "just world" and "beautiful =good"

20

what is a macro level analysis?

government regulations (food industry, school lunch programs..) but picture issues

21

what is a micro level analysis?

personal choices

22

what is the intermediate level analysis?

eating environment (atmosphere) & food environment (5 S's)

23

portion sizes create________ _______

consumption norms

24

what are three factors that cue people to overeat?

-"clean our plates"
-consumption norms
-underestimate calories

25

what are the 5 S's?

-salience
-structure
-size
-stockpile
-served

26

what are the three factors that influence salience?

-visual
-olfactory
-memories associated with foods

27

what are two factors that influence structure?

-perceived variety (more variety more consumption)
-arrangement of food (appears to have greater variety)

28

what are two factors that influence size?

-package portions have increases over the last 30 years
-increased portion size=increase consumption

29

what are two factors that influence stockpile?

-increase visibility and salience
-bulk foods

30

what are two factors that influence servings

-drinking glasses (vertical vs horizontal)
-plates and bowls (delbouef)

31

how does the eating environment simulate consumption? (4)

1. eating atmosphere
2. eating effort
3. eating with others
4. eating distractions

32

what are 4 factors that influence eating atmosphere?

-lighting
-odor
-noise and sounds of music
-temperature

33

what are 3 factors that influence eating efforts?

-ease, access or convenience
-location of food
-stopping points

34

what are 2 factors that influence eating with others?

-eating with unfamiliar people (eat less or more aware)
-eating with familiar people (eat more & duration)

35

what are 4 factors that influence eating with distractions?

- initiate (always have popcorn at the movies)
-obscure(paying attention to the movie and not eating)
- extend consumption( eat until the movie is done)
- script-related eating (eating because of normal behaviors and not because of hunger)

36

what is acanthosis negerians?

skin condition

37

what is bioimpedance analysis

resistance and reactance of electrical current
Pros:
easy
can measure ourselves
short testing period
cons:
eating and drinking can effect reading +/- 10%
standing position may effect reading
not very reproducible

38

what is 3 dimension photonic scanning?

high-speed digital cameras and math used to detect position of laser-light points projected onto surface of the body
Pros:
simple & accurate
Cons:
client is uncomfortable
expensive
need a trainer administrator
quality of equipment varies results

39

dilution techniqes

Total body water changes affect body composition
Pros;
easy for participate
cons:
expensive
trained administer

40

dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

whole body & regional estimates of bone mineral, bone free FFM & fat
pros:
fast
accurate
reproducible
regional readings
Cons:
expensive
radiation exposure
weight limit of 182kg

41

what are the two types of imaging techniques

MRI
CT

42

pros and cons for an MRI

pros:
can breakdown tissues
accurate
Cons:
expensive
uncomfortable for client
size limitation

43

what are the pros and cons for a CT

pros:
accurate
breakdown tissue
Cons:
expensive
size limitation
radiation

44

what is magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)

chemical composition of tissue
Pros:
accurate
Cons:
expensive

45

to be diagnosised with PCOS what 2/3 symptoms do you have to have?

1. oligomennorhea (few periods less than 8 a year)
2. androgen excess (produced by ovaries & adrenal gland)
3. polycystic ovaries (growths on ovaries)

46

NAFLD what are the four stages to liver death?

1. steatosis (inflamed liver)
2. NASH [nonalcoholic statohepatitis] (inflamed and starting to see signs of fibrosis)
3. Fibrosis
4. cirrhosis