Flashcards in Musculoskeletal injuries 2 final Deck (125)
what is tylenol?
what is the purpose of acetaminophen?
reduce pain and fever
NOT ANTI INFLAMMATORY OR ANTI PLATELET
what are the two most common analgestics and antipyretics
acetaminophen (tylenol) & Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
what is aspirin?
what is the purpose of acetylsalicylic acid?
-anti platelet properties (blood thinning)
what are common side affects of acetylsalicylic acid?
if a child has aspirin what disease to the risk developing?
what is advil?
_____ like drug that reduced inflammation?
what does advil do?
is an advil (NSAIDs) safer to take than aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)
advil is safer
-lacks the gastrointestinal and hemorrhagic effects
what are common side affects of NSAIDs?
-hypersensitivity reactions to toxicity
what is corticosteroids purpose?
-decrease swelling, warmth, redness and pain
____ is used to inhibit inflammation
what are some common side effects of corticosteroids
-increase or decrease appetite
-facial or body hair growth
-decrees in body's immune
what conditions should not be used with corticosteroids
-HIV or AIDS
what does a local anesthetic do?
inhibits the sensory nerve receptors in the skin, to reduce pain or itching
what are some examples of a local anesthetic
eyolcaine or fluromethane
what is the purpose of a muscle relaxant?
blocking the afferent messages that travel from the muscles to the brain. resulting in decrease pain, muscle spasm and tenderness.
what are common side effects of muscle relaxants?
what are some examples of muscle relaxants?
what is polysporin considered?
what is the purpose for topical antibiotics?
kill disease producing bacteria such as strepococcus or staphylococcus. Therefore used to prevent and treat infection
what is hydrogen peroxided?
antiseptics and disinfectants
what is the purpose of antiseptics and disinfectants
antiseptics- stops the growth of micro-organisms or bacteria (alcohol)
disinfectant- chemical agents applied to non living Vira Quat or Iso Quin
what is the purpose of an antifungal agent?
treat infects caused by fungal cells (in humans often mold or yeast)
what are common side effects for antifungal agents?
worsen of condition
itching of the area
what is pulmonary contusion?
crushing injury to the tissue of the lungs as a results of a direct blow to the area
what is the clinical presentation for a pulmonary contusion? (4)
-hemoptysis (spitting up blood)
-diagnosis requires a CT scan or an x-ray
what is common referred to as a collapsed lung?
what is a pneumothorax
air becomes trapped in the pleural space if the lung causing a porting of the lung to collapse
what are the three common causes for pneumothorax?
-spontaneously after strenuous physical activity
what are the clinical presentations for pneumothroax? (8)
-shortness of breath
-severe chest pain
-asymmetrical chest expansion
-referred pain to the TIP OF THE SHOULDER
during the hyperextension phase of whiplash what type of injury may results to the trachea or larynx
what is the clinical presentation of a contusion of the trachea or larynx? (8)
-hoarseness or loss of voice
-shortness of breath
-cyanosis or acute respiratory distress
-blood tinged sputum
-bruising and redness
what is the most common ribs to fracture?
what is the clinical presentation for sternal or rib fracture? (9)
-leaning towards fractured side
-localized bruising and swelling
-palpable pain and crepitus
-increased pain on inspiration
-increase pain with trunk rotation and side flexion
-rapid and weak pulse
-low blood pressure
what is solar plexus contusion
a diaphragmatic spasm and stimulation of a parasympathetic nervous system (getting the wind knocked out of you). common a result of a blow to the abdomen when muscles are relaxed
what are the clinical presentation for a intra-abdominal injury(11)
-abdominal pain (mild then rapidly increases in severity)
-referred pain to TIP OF THE SHOULDER, BACK OR GROIN REGION
-may lean forward with knees to their chest
-coughing up or vomiting blood that looks like coffee grounds
-diffuse hemorrhage or distension of the abdomen
-palpable tenderness or rigidity over injured organ
-cramps or muscles guarding
what area of the abdomen needs to take a blow to get a splenic rupture?
left upper abdominal quadrant
what is the clinical representation of a splenic rupture?(6)
-history or blunt trauma to region
-sharp pain initially followed by a constant dull pain
-referred pain to LEFT SHOULDER (Kehr's sign)
-cold and clammy
-signs of shock evident
-nausea and vomiting
what is known as Kehr's sign?
referred pain to the left shoulder
what abdominal quadrant needs to take a blow for a liver contusion or rupture?
what are the clinical presentations for liver contusion and rupture? (3)
-signs of shock
-referred pain to the RIGHT INFERIOR OF THE SCAPULA
for a kidney contusion and rupture where is the referred pain?
left anterior abdomen and sides of buttocks and blood in the urine
inflammation of the appendix which can lead to ___ and ____
what the appendix ruptures feces and bacteria are sprayed over the abdominal content resulting in___
peritonitis (can cause organ shut down with months in the hospital)
what are the clinical presentation for appendicitis? (6)
-abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant
-loss of appetite
-low grade fever
-rebound pain on palpation of McBurney's point (use lilac crest for finding the site)
what is a hernia
a protrusion of the abdominal viscera through the weakened abdominal wall
what are the clinical presentation for a hernia?(5)
-subjective aching in the groin region that increases with coughing
-visible swelling in the groin region
-palpable tenderness in the groin region
-invagination of the scrotum increases pain
-sport hernia- only pops out during activities
what are the six causes of sudden death in athletes?
-mitral valve prolapse
-acquired valvular heart disease
-coronary artery disease
what is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
abnormal thickening of the LEFT VENTRICLE wall that leads to electrical problems and abnormal hearth rhythms
what is auricular hematoma commonly referred to as?
how does a auricular hematoma develop?
blunt trauma pulls the cartilage away from the perichondrium resulting in a hematoma
what are the clinical presentations for a detached retina?(3)
-floaters in the visual field
-light flashes in the visual field
-the sensation that a curtain fell over their eye
What is RA (rheumatoid arthritis)
a chronic systemic inflammation disorder and usually symmetric inflammation of the peripheral joints and progressive destruction of the articular and peri articular structures.
what are the 5 steps of developing RA?
1. immune complex becomes activated
2. migration of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the joint. these phagocytes release enzymes that cause synovitis
3. synovial tissue is infiltrated with lymphocytes and plasma cells
4. proliferation of the vascular connective tissue in the synovium
5. inflamed synoival tissue then release pannus that causes the destruction of the articular cartilage and subchondral bone
what are the clinical presentations for RA? (8)
-pain and swelling in multiple joints
-symmetric involvement of the small joints
-morning stiffness greater than 30 minutes
-low endurance and muscular weakness
-joint deformity and resultant instability
-nodule over pressure areas
what are three categories of associated complications for RA?
what are 3 cardiovascular associated complicated with RA
-iron deficiency anemia
what are 3 respiratory assoicated complicated with RA
-fibrosis of the lungs
what is 1 neurological associated complication with RA
what is the first line of defense against RA (drug)
-major side effect is gastrointestinal dysfunction
what is the aim of drug treatments for RA?
-minimize side effects
what is the aim of other treatments for RA?
-to restore and maintain strength, mobility and function fo daily tasks
-thermotherapy and cryotherapy
-splints to immobilize and protect the joints
-stretching and strengthening exercises
what is OA (osteoarthritis)
a disorder pf the hyaline cartilage, subcondral bone and associated tissues in which these tissues become hypertrophic
what is the clinical presentation for OA? (7)
-initially OA is non inflammatory and the onset is subtle and gradual
-usually involves only one or few joints
-joint pain is the first symptom
-stiffness in the morning or following inactivity 15-30 mins
-crepitus and grating
-joint enlargement (40+)
what is the treatment for OA?
-stretching and strengthening exercises
-thermotherapy and cryotherapy
-ultrasound, TENS and interferential current
-drug therapy (aspirin, NSAIDs and muscle relaxants
what is systemic lupus erythomatous (SLE)?
an inflammatory connective tissue disorder occurring predominately in young women and children.
what is the clinical presentation for SLE? (11)
-joint pain swelling and stiffness
-muscular fatigue and weakness
-butterfly rash on face
-chronic low grade fever and frequent infections
-mouth sores and sore throat
-decreased appetite and weight loss
-sensitivity to sun
-heart, lung and kidney may be affected
-nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain
what is the treatment for SLE?
difficult to treat due to the unpredictable clinical presentation
-drug therapy works for some people
what is anklyosing spondylitis also known as
bamboo spine- frozen spine
what is anklyosing spondylitis
ossification of insertion sites of ligaments, tendons and the intervertebral discs leading to joint destruction and erosion
what gene is linked to anklyosing spondylitis
HLA B27 gene
what is the clinical presentation of anklyosing spondylitis ? (6)
-loss of mobility (spinal motion and chest expansion)
-persistent joint aching
-iritis (eye swelling, visual disturbances)
what is the treatment for anklyosing spondylitis
-exercises such as swimming, cycling and walking
what is gout?
defect of purine metabolisms that results in hypericemia and the disposition of intra articular uric acid crystals
what is osteoporosis?
a decrease in bone density results in the occurrence of fractures
what is the clinical presentation for osteoporosis? (5)
-spontaneous pain follwing exertion or minor trauma
-increased opain with weight bearing
-dowagers hump or kyphosis
-decreased height secondary to anterior wedging of teh vertebrae
-ribs often rest on iliac crest
what is the treatment for osteoporosis?
-weight bearing exercises but avoid exercises that involve twisting or explosive movements
-adequate calcium and vitamin D intake
-hormone replacement therapy
what is osteogenesis imperfecta
cogenital form of osteorosis that is caused by an autosomal dominate gene that affects the body's production of collagen
what is the clinical presentation for osteogenesis imperfecta? (5)
-high incidenece of fractures
-hypermobility and low muscle tone
-blue/purple sclera (whites of eyes)
what is the treatment for osteogenesis imperfecta?
-directed towards preventing or controlling symptoms and maximizing mobility and developing optimal bone mass and muscle strength
what is horner's syndrome?
a sinking in the eyeball, dropping of the supper eye lide
what is grade 1 whiplash?
complain of pain, stiffness and tenderness only. no physical signs upper quad scan all comes back negative
what is grade 2 whiplash?
complains of pain and musculoskeletal signs present including decreased ROM and point tenderness -nerves not involved
what is grade 3 whiplash?
complains of pain and neurological signs present including decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes, weakness and sensory deficits
what is grade 4 whiplash?
complains of pain and a fracture or dislocation is present
what is acute torticollis?
-sudden onset of neck pain and stiffness upon awakening
-can be caused by sudden rotation of the cervical spine
-subluxation of teh facet or uncinated process often occurring at C2-3
what is it called when a child (5-7yrs) has torticollis
what is Grisel's syndrome
subluxation of the atlas commonly due to a respiratory tract infection. need antibiotics, not traction.
what range is a cervical disc derangement most common?
what is the main symptom for cervical spinal stenosis?
no neck pain
where do supratentorial lesions occur?
above the tentorium cerebelli
what does the left hemisphere of the brain control? (4)
-logical thinking ability
-other intellectual abilities
what does the right hemisphere of the brain control? (4) in juried
-lack of appreciation for music and art
- behavioral problems
-spatial orientation and recognition of relationships may be deficient
-self care deficits
what is a vegetative state? (3)
-loss of awareness and mental capabilities
-result of diffuse brain damage
-brainsteam function continues
what is lock-in syndrome
individual is aware and capable of thinking but is paralyzed and cannot communicate
damage in the upper motor neurons (brain) would cause a problem where in the body?
damage to the lower motor neurons (peripheral) would cause a problem where in the body?
what is decorticate rigidity
(someone with brain damage may have this response)
what is decerbrate rigidity
what is hemianopia
what is aphasia
inability to comprehend or express language
what is expressive (motor) aphasia
-impaired ability to speak or write fluently or appropriately
-occurs in the BROCA'S AREA in the dominate FRONTAL LOBE
what is receptive (sensory) aphasia
inability to read or understand the spoken words
results of damage to the WERNICKE'S AREA in the left TEMPORAL LOBE
what is global aphasia
-damage to both areas. Broca's area and wernicke's area
what is dysarthria
cannot articulate words clearly
what is agraphia
impaired writing ability
what is alexia?
impaired reading ability
what is agnosia?
loss of recognition or association
what is lethargy
decreasing level of consciousness or decreased responsiveness
what is a TIA?
transient ischemic attacks (mini stroke)
what is are the signs and symptoms of TIA?(5)
-related to the location of ischemia
-intermittent short episodes of impairment function (muscle weakness in arm or leg)
-numbness and paresthesia in face
-transient aphasia or confusion may develop
what is a CVA
cerebral vascular accident -(stroke)
CVA s a infraction of the brain tissue that results from lack of blood caused by: (2)
-occlusion of a cerebral blood vessel
-rupture of cerebral
___ mins of ischemia causes irreversible nerve cell damage
what are the 3 types of CVAs?
what is a ischemic stroke?
occulsion of an artery by antheroma (plaque) that often develops in large arteries
what is an embolic stroke?
sudden obstruction caused by an embolus (blockage) lodging in a cerebral artery
what is a hemorrhagic stroke?
intra-cerebral hemorrhage caused by the rupture of a cerebral artery in patients with severe hypertension (effects both sides of the brain)
what are some risk factors for CVAs?
-diabetes, hypertension, SLE, atherosclerosis, history of TIAs, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, smoking, sedentary lifestyle
-congenital malformation of blood vessels
what are the signs and symptoms for a CVA? (4)
-depends on location & size of artery
-lack of voluntary movements of sensation on opposite side of the body
-initially flaccid paralysis
-spastic paralysis develops weeks later
for ischemia strokes when should they be treated by?
60mins to get the medication