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1

Describe food

products derived from plants or animals that can be taken into the body to yield energy and nutrients for the maintenance of life and the growth and repair of tissue

2

what are the 11 factors that influence food choice

1. personal preference/taste
2. habit
3.ethnic heritage or tradition
4. social interactions
5. availability/ convenience- economy
6. positive/ negative associations
7. emotional comfort
8. athletic performance
9. values
10. body weight and image
11.nutrition and health benefits

3

What is a therapeutic diet

a diet ordered by a physician as part of treatment for a disease or clinical condition, or to eliminate, decrease, or increase specific nutrients in the diet

4

What is: a diet ordered by a physician as part of treatment for a disease or clinical condition, or to eliminate, decrease or increase specific nutrients in the diet

therapeutic diet

5

what is another name for therapeutic diet

medical nutrition therapy

6

what is another name for medical nutrition therapy

therapeutic diet

7

what is: a chemical substance obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural material and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance and repair of the body's tissue

nutrient

8

what is a nutrient

a chemical substance obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural material and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance and repair of the body's tissue

9

what two forms are nutrients found in?

organic
inorganic

10

what is a macronutrients

required in large amounts because they provide the body with energy in the form of calories

11

what is a calorie

food energy is measure in kilocalories (kcal)
one calorie is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius

12

what: required in large amount because they provide the body with energy in the form of calories

macronutrients

13

what: food energy is measure in kilocalories
one calorie is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water one degree Celsius

Calorie

14

how many calories in a gram of carbohydrates

4kcal

15

what are examples of carbohydrates

simple sugars, fibre and starches
bread pasta rice cereal milk fruit

16

how many calories are in a gram of protein

4kcal

17

what are some examples of protein

milk eggs legumes gains animal products

18

what is protein composed of

compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen arranged into chains

19

how many calories per gram of fat

9kcal

20

what is fat determined by

a family of compounds that are insoluble in water
fats are solid at room temperature while oils are liquid

21

what are the three diet recommendations?

variety
moderation
wholesomeness

22

what is a great source of: B vitamins, fibre and carbs

Grains and starches

23

what is a great source of: fibre, carbs, water soluble vitamins and potassium

Fruits and Vegetables

24

What foods provide amino acids to the muscles

protein

25

what can simultaneously be a source of saturated fats

proteins

26

what is a source of: calcium, phosphorus, B vitamins and protein

Dairy

27

DRI

Dietary Reference Intake
-set of nutrient intake value

28

EAR

Estimated Average Requirements
-estimated to meet about 1/2 population

29

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance
-intake meets (97-98%) of healthy individuals

30

AI

Adequate Intake
-empirical method when RDA is unknown

31

TUL

Tolerance Upper Level
-max intake of a nutrient without risk

32

Harris Benedict Equation for men

66.5+(13,75 *kg) + (5.003 * cm) - (6.775*age) *AF *SF

33

Harris Benedict Equation for Women

655.1 + ( 9.563* kg) + (1.850*cm) - (4.676*age) *AF*SF

34

What is the acceptable range for CHO, fat and protein

CHO- 45-60%
Fat-20-35%
protein 10-35%

35

four main uses for nutrition facts

1. easy comparison
2. Look for specific nutrient
3. special diet
4. informed decisions

36

Three steps to reading a label

step 1: look at the amount
step 2: read the DV %
step 3: choose

37

Nutrient Claim:
Free

none or hardly any of this nutrient

38

nutrient claim:
low

a small amount

39

Nutrient Claim:
reduced

at least 25% less than a comparable product

40

Nutrient claim
light

reduced in fat or calories

41

Nutrient Claim:
Source

contains a significant amount of the nutrient

42

Nutrient Claim:
high or good source

contains a high amount of a nutrient

43

Nutrient Claim:
very high or excellent source

contains a very high amount of the nutrient

44

Canada's Food guide message

choose foods with none or little added sugar, fat or salt
and select lean meats

45

What are the 8 stages of digestion

1. mouth
2. salivary glands
3. pharynx
4. esophagus
5. stomach
6. small intestine
7. large intestine
8. rectum

46

what is on the tongues surface covered with taste buds and taste pores

papilla

47

what does salvia contain

99,5% water
electrolytes [ sodium chloride, bicarbonate, potassium]
protein [ enzyme, mucus and lysozyme]

48

function of salvia

moistening and lubricating food
initiating carbohydrate digestion
antibacterial protection
acts as a buffer

49

approx. how many times do we swallow a day

600

50

what are the four stages of the swallow

1. oral preparatory phase
2. oral phase
3. pharyngeal phase
4. esophagus phase

51

what is involved at the oral preparatory phase

food chewed and mixed with saliva

52

what is involved at the oral phase

voluntary movement of bolus to back of oral cavity

53

what is involved at the pharyngeal phase

bolus directed to esophagus, uvula seals off nasal cavity

54

what is involved in the esophageal phase

autonomic; sphincter closes and breakdown resums

55

what are the four layers of the esophagus

1. inner layer
2. submuscosa layer
3. muscular layer
4. outer layer

56

what are the two sphincter of the esophagus

upper esophageal sphincter [ pharnygoesophageal ]
lower esophageal sphincter LES

57

where is food stored in the stomach

the upper portion

58

what is the semiliquid substance in which food is converted by gastric secretions

chyme

59

what are the two types of gastric digestion

mechanical digestion
chemical digestion

60

What does GERD stand for

gastroesophogeal reflux Disease

61

what is GERD

incompetence of LES; greater pressure in esophagus therefore food has the tendency to travel upwards.

62

what are the factors that decrease the pressure differential from the esophagus and the stomach in individuals that have GERD

-increase in gastrin, estrogen, progesterone
-hiatal hernia or sclerosis
- smoking
-medications use [ dopamine, morphine]
-specific foods

63

symptoms of GERD

difficulty swallowing
heartburn
increases salivation
belching

64

treatment strategies/ goals for GERD

-increase LES competence
-decrease acidity of gastric contents [ use of medication and nutrition therapy]
-improve clearance of esophagus

65

What are some symptoms of Dysphagia

CVA, Parkinson's disease, stroke, MS, muscular dystrophy, Huntington's disease, chemotherapy

66

What is a common side affect of dysphagia

aspiration where oropharygeal contents are inhaled into lungs aspiration pneumonia secondary to bacterial overgrowth

67

what is a treatment for dysphagia

eating thinker liquid foods so there is time for the body to react and digest the food slower, and allow for the epiglottis to properly direct the bolus

68

what are the three main land marks of the small intestines

duodenum
jejunum
ileum

69

what stimulates the release of pancreatic and gall bladder secretions in the small intestines

cholecystokinin
gastrin
secretin

70

how does the pancreatic juices enter the small intestine

pancreatic bile ducts

71

what are the two aspects of the pancreatic juices

bicarb
enzymes

72

what does a bicarb do

neutralizes the pH

73

what does the enzymes in the pancreatic juices do

-protein breakdown: trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptinases and elastase
-carbohydrate breakdown: amylase
-lipid breakdown: pancreatic lipase and colipae

74

what kind of contraction is peristalsis

longitudinal so it makes bulges

75

what kind of contractions is segmental

circular muscle. creates a pinch

76

what are on the folds of the small intestines

villi and on that microvilli

77

what are the three ways of nutrient absorption

1. simple diffusion
2. facilitated diffusion
3. active transport

78

Three main areas of large intestines

ascending, transverse, descending

79

what are the segmentations of the large intestines called

hustration

80

what are the small sacs on the large intestines called

hustra

81

what does the hustra have in the sacs

chyme as it mixes with the colon secretions

82

what is propulsion

alternating waves of relaxation and contraction of smooth m.

83

what is mass movement

significant contraction of a large portion of intestinal contents along colon

84

what is defecation

rectum relaxes the anal sphincter

85

How long does absorption take to start after the food is consumed

4 hours

86

When you have celiac disease what layer of the intestine is damaged

mucosa layer

87

what is the treatment for celiac disease

limit gluten in diet

88

what does carbo mean

carbon

89

what does hydrate mean

water

90

what is the primary nutrient for the brain and nervous system

carbohydrates

91

is CHO a high or low density source of energy

low

92

what is a complex carbohydrate

long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fibre

93

what is the process called that plants create CHO

photosynthesis

94

what are the two components in which glucose is created by

CO2 and H2O

95

what is a simple sugar

basic sugar molecule contains 6 carbons with oxygen and hydrogen

96

what is a monosaccharide

single sugar unit

97

what is a disaccharide

double sugar unit

98

what are the three types of monosaccharide's

glucose
fructose
galactose

99

where is fructose found

fruits

100

where is galactose found

milk products

101

what are the three disaccharide's

lactose
maltose
sucrose

102

what two monosaccharide's make up lactose

glucose and galactose

103

what two monosaccharide's make up maltose

glucose and glucose

104

what two monosaccharide's make up sucrose

glucose and fructose

105

what needs to breakdown before absorption can occur

disaccharides, by enzymes

106

all monosaccharide's are converted to glucose by?

the liver

107

what enzyme breaks down disaccharides to monosaccharide's

disaccarideases

108

how is glucose and galactose absorbed

active transport

109

how is fructose absorbed

facilitated diffusion

110

the three polysaccharides

starch
glycogen
fibre

111

where is starch found

plants

112

where is glycogen found

animals

113

list the polysaccharides in order starting with most branched

glycogen
starch
fibre

114

what is an example of an insoluble fibre

cellulose and hemicellulose

115

benefits to a fibre rich diet

norm blood cholesterol concentrations
modulate blood sugar
maintains healthy bowel function
healthy body weight
complex CHO protect against heart disease and stroke
viscous fibres lower cholesterol level

116

true or false soluble fibres prevent large fluctuations of blood glucose

true

117

what is the glycemic index

ranking of how quickly a food rises blood glucose and corresponding insulin results
there are many factors affecting the rank so it is hard to predict

118

what is the glycemic load

evaluation of amount eaten at one time

119

what would a high butyrate [SCFA] high diet protect against

colon injuries

120

Fermentation of fibre in large bowels yields what

short chain fatty acids [SCFA]

121

fibre helps maintain a healthy body weight because it is generally low in

saturated fats and added sugars

122

fibre helps maintain a healthy body weight because you feel

full for a longer time, because the gastric emptying is delayed

123

what are the three main fibre cautions

1. too much fibre and not an adequate amount of fibre will cause bowel blockage
2. fibre acts as a chelating agent [ binding with minerals such as iron zinc and calcium]
3. fibre is avoided by people with marginal intake and those at risk of malnutrition

124

what is the recommended serving of fibre

14g of fibre/1000kcal

125

how much CHO is needed to feed the brain every day

130g

126

when there is an inadequate amount of glucose for the body to break down what does it break down the in process of glycogenesis

protein

127

without adequate amount of CHO what is produced that throws off the acidity balance

Ketones

128

what can chronic ketones cause

- vitamins and mineral disturbance
- bone loss
- altered blood lipids
- kidney stones
- scant glycogen stores

129

how much glycogen does the liver store

60-120g [240-480kcals]

130

what percent glycogen is stored in the average persons skeletal muscle fibres

1%

131

how much glycogen does is stored in muscles

200-500g [800-2000kcal]

132

what percent of our glycogen is stored in out muscles

66%

133

when blood glucose levels are low what breaks down glycogen from the muscles and liver

glucagon

134

true or false: due to the highly branched nature of glycogen glucagon acts slowly to release glucose into the blood stream

false, because it is branched it acts quickly because there is an attachment site on each branch

135

CHO before exercise

3-4 hours

136

why would someone want to consume CHO before exercise

max. glycogen stress at the onset of exercise
allow athletes to start in a hyperglycemic state

137

CHO 30 minutes before exercise puts the athlete in what state

hypoglycemic state

138

true or false high glycemic index foods allow for rapid recovery

true

139

what is glycogen loading

max. stores of glycogen at onset of exercise

140

true of false: increase in secrum glucose results in decrease secrum insulin

false it would cause an increase in secrum insulin

141

what are the two concerns with fibre intake before exercise

1. produce gas, bloating and abdominal pains
2. undigested CHO increase mass of stool in colon

142

Approx what Is the general intake recommendation of CHO

6-10g/kg

143

how many people are living with diabetes and are unaware

1/2

144

what is type 1 diabetes also known as

insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

145

what type of diabetes is the own person immune system attacks the cells of the pancreas

type 1

146

what is the leading chronic disease among children and adolescents

type 1 diabetes

147

what time of diabetes does the blood glucose level remain high while the muscles and tissue are starved for glucose

type 1

148

what is type two diabetes known as

insulin resistant

149

what type of diabetes can be managed with medications

type 2

150

how many veg servings are recommended for diabetics

5+

151

how many fruit servings are recommended for diabetics

3

152

how many grain and starch servings for diabetics

6-8

153

how many milk and alternative for diabetics

2-3

154

how many meat and alternatives for diabetics

4-8

155

how much fat and oil recommended for diabetics

moderation

156

what are the three lipids found

1. triglycerides
2. phospholipids
3. sterols

157

true or false fat is necessary in a healthy diet

true

158

what contains a higher level of energy CHO or fat

fat has twice the amount of energy than CHO

159

what is: FFA usually incorporated into a complex compound

triglycerides

160

what are the three FFA acids attached to in a triglyceride

glycerol molecule

161

true or false all the FFA on the glycerol molecule is always the same length

false it can differ by saturation

162

how are triglycerides formed?

endogenously but dietary intake can influence their composition

163

what does saturated refer to

hydrogenation of FFA
max. hydrogen part of FFA= saturated

164

when does the point of unsaturation occur

when a carbon does not contain a max H.

165

what are common sources of unsaturated fats

plants and fish

166

what is it called when there is only one point of unsaturation

monosaturated fatty acid [MUFA]

167

what is it called when there is two plus points of unsaturation

polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA]

168

how are fatty acids named

based on the location of the first double bond

169

what is the transports of fat

lipoprotein

170

what are the four lipoproteins

1. chylomicron
2. VLDL
3. LDL
4.HDL

171

what are the chylomicrons

within the intestinal cells, monoglycerides and LCFA[long chain fatty acids] are re-packed into triglycerides and combined with protein and phospholipids

172

how do LCFA and monoglycerides travel the blood stream

via chylomicron

173

true or false as the chylomicron pass through the body tissues are able to remove needed components

true

174

what does the apolipoprotein portion of the chylomicron do

provides structural support, cellular recognition and binding

175

what is larger LDL or HDL

LDL

176

what is higher in cholesterol LDL or HDL

LDL

177

what is higher in protein LDL or HDL

HDL

178

does LDL or HDL deliver cholesterol from the liver to the tissues

LDL

179

does LDL or HDL scavenge cholesterol and return it to the liver

HDL

180

what is the risk of heart attack and atherosclerosis is closely related to ____elevated levels

LDL

181

consumption of trans fat raises____ and lowers___

raises LDL
lowers HDL

182

what is dyslipidemia

a lipid profile that increase the risk of atherosclerotic development
condition with increased LDL and decreased HDL

183

individuals with dyslipidemia should follow what dietary recommendations

avoid saturated fat, trans fat, and dietary cholesterol [no more than 10% sat a day]
include unsaturated fats
choose lean meats

184

what are the three ways in which fatty acids differ

1. length
2. saturation
3. shape

185

what are the two ends of a fatty acid

1. methyl [ 3 H]
2. acid end [ double bond with O and a OH group]

186

How many carbon, double bonds, saturation and common food sources in stearic acid

18 carbons
0 double bonds
saturated
animal fats

187

how many carbons, double bonds, saturation and common food sources for oleic acid

18 carbons
1 double bond
monounsaturated
olive and canola oils

188

how many carbons, double bonds, saturation and common food sources for linoleic acid

18 carbons
2 double bonds
polyunsaturated
sunflower, safflower, corn soybeans

189

how many carbons, double bonds, saturation and common food sources for linolenic acid

18 carbons
3 double bonds
polyunsaturated
soybeans, canola, flax and walnuts

190

what is linoleic acid also known as

omega 6

191

What is linolenic acid known as

omega 3

192

where are the double bonds on the linoleic acid

carbon 6 and 9

193

where are the double bonds on the linolenic acid

carbons 3, 6 and 9

194

how much linoleic acid is recommended each day for both genders

17g/day Men [approx. intake 14g/day]
12g/day Women [approx. intake 9.5g/day]

195

how much linolenic acid is recommended each day for both genders

1.6g/day Men [approx. intake 2.5g/day]
1.1g/day Women [approx. intake 1.5g/day]

196

what acid is used to synthesis arachadonic acid

linoleic acid

197

what does arachadonic acid make

eicosanoids

198

what do eicosanoids act like

hormones and mediate inflammation

199

what are the sources of arachadonic acid

vegetables

200

linolenic acid is used to synthesis what two acids

EPA- eciosapentarnoic acid
DHA- docosahexaenoic acid

201

true or false linoleic acid increases triglycerides synthesis and VLDL

false it decreases it

202

omega 3 is thought of as being...

anti-inflammatory

203

omega 6 is thought of as being...

pro-inflammatory

204

fish supplements may interfere with...

bleeding and coagulation time and may suppress immune system

205

true or false fish supplements can contain harmful toxins such a mercury

true

206

catabolic hormones are elevated when____ levels are low

insulin

207

FFA usage is promoted by hormones associated with exercise and fasting:

glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol
adrenicortictrpic hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone, growth hormone

208

during exercise where does FA come from

within the muscle cell of the circulation

209

FA from adipose tissue
circulation TG are dependent on two factors:

1. rate of lipolysis
2. association of FFA with albumin

210

true of false during endurance exercise the relative contribution made by fat to muscle fuel decreases with increased intensity

true

211

what us the most import stimulator of lipolysis during exercise

catecholamine's

212

what are the three catecholamine's

epinephrine
cortisol
glucagon

213

how does cortisol influence hormone levels

stimulates HSL[hormone sensitive lipase] during higher intensity longer duration exercise

214

how does glucagon influence hormone levels

increase in HSL if blood glucose levels drop during exercise

215

what is the inhibitor of HSL

insulin

216

when is max lipolysis occur

moderate-high intensity submaximal exercise when increased levels of catecholamine's are present with a blunting of insulin released

217

does glucose undergo some anaerobic metabolism

yes

218

what is the explanation of decrease in FA use with increasing intensity

due to m. contraction, BP increasing which increases CO to the lungs for oxygenation

219

what two FA form circulating lipoprotein

chylomicron
VLDL

220

is chylomicron or VLDL available during exercise

VLDL

221

muscle adaption in response to ________ training by increasing _______ capabilities which increases_____ and decreases _____ use during exercise

cardiorespiratory
oxidative
fat
glycogen

222

how does regular cardiorespiratory training affect LDL and HDL

increase HDL and total cholesterol
decrease LDL

223

chronic elevation in BP is called

hypertension

224

what measurement is BP expressed in

mmHg

225

what are the two measurements of BP

systolic
diastolic

226

what is the desired BP

120/80mmHg

227

what is known as the silent killer

hypertension

228

Hypertension can cause:

kidney disease
congestive heart failure
myocardial infarction
stroke
aneurysm

229

what is the origin of high vasopressin

hypothalamus

230

hypertension is a result of increased______&______

vasopressin
angiotensin II

231

common causes of hypertension

smoking
neurological disease
adrenal disorder

232

lifestyle changes for HTN

increase in PA
smoking cessation
nutrition adjustments
weight loss

233

nutritional interventions for HTN

sodium decrease to 2300mg/day
ETOH 2d/day Men 1d/day Women
Potassium, calcium, Magnesium- reduce BP
4-6 potassium per day

234

what is the key difference between CHO and fats with protein

amino acid

235

how many different kinds of amino acids are there

20

236

true or false all amino acids contain the same backbone

true:
carbon
amine
acid group
side chain

237

how do amino acids connect together

peptide bonds

238

what are the three AA

dipeptides
tripepides
polypeptides

239

two varieties of protein

globular shape
protein strands can function alone or in networks

240

what is the protein shape called with 4 associated strands

hemoglobin

241

what changes the protein shape and loss of function

heat
acid
base
alcohol
heavy metal
agitation

242

what breaks down protein in stomach

HCL hydrochloric acid

243

what cleaves proteins to smaller polypeptides and some free amino acids

pepsin

244

in small intestines what does polypepides get broken down into

tripeptides
dipeptides
amino acids

245

once protein is in the blood stream where is it transported

liver

246

what are the 7 functions of proteins

1. growth and maintenance
2. enzymes and hormone
3. antibodies
4. fluid electrolytes balance
5. acid and base balance
6. blood clotting
7. protein for energy

247

what does protein growth and maintain include

protein turnover
continuous breakdown and synthesis of body protein involving the recycling of amino acids

248

what does protein enzyme and hormones include

facilitate chemical raxns/ regulates internal environment

249

what does protein antibodies include

protein in blood recognizes foreign proteins

250

what does protein fluid electrolytes balance include

albumin maintains oncotic pressure and prevents edema

251

what does protein acid and base balance include

acts as a buffer to maintain pH

252

what does protein blood clotting include

trap platelets

253

what does protein for energy include

protein break down
FA cannot be converted into glucose
no protein storage

254

what does the NS NEED

glucose

255

what can be adapted by the CNS for energy

ketosis

256

what are the concerns with ketones

elevated lipid levels
rapid weight loss
insulin limits skeletal m. breakdown
increase in urea excretion from kidneys
high obesity with high fat diets

257

AA in a cell is used to:

build protein
convert to other AA or small Nitrogen containing compounds

258

AA striped of N:

burned as fuel
converted to glucose and fat

259

AA wasted when:

energy is lacking
protein is over abundant
quality of protein is low

260

Protein quality for plants and animals %

plants 70-90%
animal 90-99%

261

true or false: if essential amino acids are missing, body must dismantle its own proteins to obtain it

true

262

by limiting AA limits_____________

protein synthesis

263

what is a more complete protein source animals or plants

animals

264

complimentary proteins means

combining incomplete plant sources to create array of AA ex. legumes and grains

265

what does PDCAAS sound for

protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score
scale of 0-100 on protein quality

266

what is concerned 100 on the PDCAAS

egg whites
tuna
chicken
ground beef

267

what is PEM

protein energy malnutrition
- inadequate intake of protein and calories

268

what is Marasmus

-overall inadequate diet
-lean

269

what is kwashiorkor

-edema and swollen belly
-protein inadequacy