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Flashcards in Psychology of aging 3131 Deck (47):
1

when was the notion of ageism given its title?

1977

2

Who single-handedly brought ageism out of the closest to become a discussion?

Robert Butler

3

What were two examples of Butler's fight against ageism?

1. Medicine and the behavioral sciences have mirrored social attitudes by presenting old age as a grim litany of physical and emotional illness
2. the over use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes at the expense of "decent human attention" through diagnosis and careful treatment

4

forty years after Butler published his chapter "Age-ism" who wrote an article for the journal for medical ethics?

AB Shaw

5

what is the title of AB Shaw's piece

in defense of ageism

6

when in defense to ageism was published Stones and Nancy martin analyzed census level RAI 2.0 data on physical restraint and anti psychotic meds among older people in complex continuing care facilities what were their findings?

33% for physical restraint
25% anti-psychotic drug use

7

in 2010-2012 looking at physical restraint and anti psychotic drug use what were the findings?

physical restraint decreased by more than half
slightly higher in the use of psychotropic drugs

8

Getting away from health care what are some examples of ageism? (6)

1. patronizing language
2. beliefs about the dependency of older people
3. practices in the helping professions
4. discrimination in work environment
5. legislative policies
6. elder abuse

9

what did TD Nelson suggest?

the print press and industry has changed our social organization

10

what were Nelsons findings in regards to reports against ageism?

found far less reports about ageism than any other "ism"

11

What is Mike Brogden write?

Geronticides

12

what are the two reasons for geroniticides

1. social marginalization
2. passivity by victim

13

who presented a broad view of SWB research entitled "correlates of avowed happiness" and in what year?

Warner Wilson
1967

14

What is Warner Wilsons definition of a happy person in 1967?

young, healthy, well educated, well paid, extroverted, optimistic, worry-free, religious, married, high self-esteem, job morale, modest aspirations, either sex and wide range of intelligence

15

who included within the definition of SWB global levels of SWB

Diener 1984

16

what are the four global levels?

positive affect
negative affect
life satisfaction
domain satisfaction

17

what were the three original global levels?

+/- affect and life satisfaction

18

when was domain satisfaction added to global levels

1999 diener et al

19

what model is this associated with? "an accumulation of happy moments"

bottom up

20

"a person enjoys pleasure because they're happy

top-down

21

what is the top-down model?

assume a propensity towards positive experiences that influences momentary interactions of an individual with their environment

22

what is the bottom-up model?

assume no such propensity but consider SWB to be a state determined by variables such as economic status, health condition, social support

23

what determined bottom-up and top down model?year?

Diener et al 1999

24

bottom-up in SWB of life circumstances, what percent of our SWB is influenced by bottom-up

8-15%

25

top-down includes personality and genetics to what percent of our SWB influenced by top-down?

50% of one time variable
80% of temporally stable variable

26

what model might explain more variability in SWB

top-down

27

what are teh two main differences between eudaimonic well being and subjective well being

1. SWB relies on appraisals within ourselves; eudaimonic well being has normative standards related to intentional actions by the individual
2. SWB- cognitive and feelings
E- actions and feelings

28

how did the definition of mental well being change

historically MWB was considered consequences of virtue "only the good could be happy"

happiness was considered a balance between pleasurable moments and unpleasurable experiences

people are born with a component that makes them happy (personality & genetics)

last decade coming back to the idea of virtue, but of course virtue is redefined

29

what is reliability

confidence we have in the scores

30

what is validity

confidence we have in the measures used to collect measures

31

what are the two scales for MWB

MUNSH- memorial university of Newfoundland scale of happiness
SHARP- short happiness and affect research protocol

32

who did studies on intentional activities & volitional effect?

Lybuomirsky 2005

33

according to Lubuomirsky findings in 2006 how is the percentile split up for SWB in the three remaining categories: genetics, circumstance and variance for intentional activity?

50%- genetics
10% - circumstance
40%- variance for intentional activities

34

change in____ lead to longitudinal happiness over_____.

activities
circumstance

35

Sheldon & Lyubomirsky did what study in 2006?

determine what has more effect on happiness intentional activity or circumstance

study 1: only measured SWB once
study 2: measured three time baseline, 6 weeks later 12 weeks later. used simple SWB measures
study 3: similar to 2 but used complex SWB measures

36

what were the three research styles to investigate intentional activities

experimental
naturalistic
longitudinal

37

what were the findings in experimental studies for intentional activities?

positive and negative conditions, but increased happiness and decreased depression

38

what were the findings in naturalistic studies for intentional activities?

activities more effective than circumstance

39

what were the findings in longitudinal studies for intentional activities?

happier people more likely to exhibit positive intentional behaviors of a pro-social nature

40

who studied reminiscence interventions? year?

Rattenbury and Stones in 1989

41

what did Stones and rattenbury find in there reminiscence studies in 1989?

residents that reminisced were happier than the control group

42

who conducted a longitudinal reminiscence study over the course of 18 months? and what year?

Stones, Rattenbury and Kozma; 1995

43

what were the findings in the 18 months of reminiscence intervention study?

people were happier immediately and was maintained throughout the entire intervention period

44

Who studied the types of reminiscence? year?

Wong and Watt 1991

45

what did the study of reminiscence types find?

successful aging: living independently were higher on integrative and instrumental reminiscence

unsuccessful aging: higher on obsessive reminiscence

46

was the interventions to promote SWB successful?

yes

47

what are the three key features that appear to be that of content of the intervention become:

1. cognitive linked with happiness
2. part of an individual repertoire of habitual behaviors or cognition
3. the effects greater for among people lower in SWB at base line