Flashcards in Psychology of aging 3131 Deck (47):
when was the notion of ageism given its title?
Who single-handedly brought ageism out of the closest to become a discussion?
What were two examples of Butler's fight against ageism?
1. Medicine and the behavioral sciences have mirrored social attitudes by presenting old age as a grim litany of physical and emotional illness
2. the over use of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes at the expense of "decent human attention" through diagnosis and careful treatment
forty years after Butler published his chapter "Age-ism" who wrote an article for the journal for medical ethics?
what is the title of AB Shaw's piece
in defense of ageism
when in defense to ageism was published Stones and Nancy martin analyzed census level RAI 2.0 data on physical restraint and anti psychotic meds among older people in complex continuing care facilities what were their findings?
33% for physical restraint
25% anti-psychotic drug use
in 2010-2012 looking at physical restraint and anti psychotic drug use what were the findings?
physical restraint decreased by more than half
slightly higher in the use of psychotropic drugs
Getting away from health care what are some examples of ageism? (6)
1. patronizing language
2. beliefs about the dependency of older people
3. practices in the helping professions
4. discrimination in work environment
5. legislative policies
6. elder abuse
what did TD Nelson suggest?
the print press and industry has changed our social organization
what were Nelsons findings in regards to reports against ageism?
found far less reports about ageism than any other "ism"
What is Mike Brogden write?
what are the two reasons for geroniticides
1. social marginalization
2. passivity by victim
who presented a broad view of SWB research entitled "correlates of avowed happiness" and in what year?
What is Warner Wilsons definition of a happy person in 1967?
young, healthy, well educated, well paid, extroverted, optimistic, worry-free, religious, married, high self-esteem, job morale, modest aspirations, either sex and wide range of intelligence
who included within the definition of SWB global levels of SWB
what are the four global levels?
what were the three original global levels?
+/- affect and life satisfaction
when was domain satisfaction added to global levels
1999 diener et al
what model is this associated with? "an accumulation of happy moments"
"a person enjoys pleasure because they're happy
what is the top-down model?
assume a propensity towards positive experiences that influences momentary interactions of an individual with their environment
what is the bottom-up model?
assume no such propensity but consider SWB to be a state determined by variables such as economic status, health condition, social support
what determined bottom-up and top down model?year?
Diener et al 1999
bottom-up in SWB of life circumstances, what percent of our SWB is influenced by bottom-up
top-down includes personality and genetics to what percent of our SWB influenced by top-down?
50% of one time variable
80% of temporally stable variable
what model might explain more variability in SWB
what are teh two main differences between eudaimonic well being and subjective well being
1. SWB relies on appraisals within ourselves; eudaimonic well being has normative standards related to intentional actions by the individual
2. SWB- cognitive and feelings
E- actions and feelings
how did the definition of mental well being change
historically MWB was considered consequences of virtue "only the good could be happy"
happiness was considered a balance between pleasurable moments and unpleasurable experiences
people are born with a component that makes them happy (personality & genetics)
last decade coming back to the idea of virtue, but of course virtue is redefined
what is reliability
confidence we have in the scores
what is validity
confidence we have in the measures used to collect measures
what are the two scales for MWB
MUNSH- memorial university of Newfoundland scale of happiness
SHARP- short happiness and affect research protocol
who did studies on intentional activities & volitional effect?
according to Lubuomirsky findings in 2006 how is the percentile split up for SWB in the three remaining categories: genetics, circumstance and variance for intentional activity?
10% - circumstance
40%- variance for intentional activities
change in____ lead to longitudinal happiness over_____.
Sheldon & Lyubomirsky did what study in 2006?
determine what has more effect on happiness intentional activity or circumstance
study 1: only measured SWB once
study 2: measured three time baseline, 6 weeks later 12 weeks later. used simple SWB measures
study 3: similar to 2 but used complex SWB measures
what were the three research styles to investigate intentional activities
what were the findings in experimental studies for intentional activities?
positive and negative conditions, but increased happiness and decreased depression
what were the findings in naturalistic studies for intentional activities?
activities more effective than circumstance
what were the findings in longitudinal studies for intentional activities?
happier people more likely to exhibit positive intentional behaviors of a pro-social nature
who studied reminiscence interventions? year?
Rattenbury and Stones in 1989
what did Stones and rattenbury find in there reminiscence studies in 1989?
residents that reminisced were happier than the control group
who conducted a longitudinal reminiscence study over the course of 18 months? and what year?
Stones, Rattenbury and Kozma; 1995
what were the findings in the 18 months of reminiscence intervention study?
people were happier immediately and was maintained throughout the entire intervention period
Who studied the types of reminiscence? year?
Wong and Watt 1991
what did the study of reminiscence types find?
successful aging: living independently were higher on integrative and instrumental reminiscence
unsuccessful aging: higher on obsessive reminiscence
was the interventions to promote SWB successful?