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Flashcards in Nutrition Final Deck (286):
1

true or false: in rest following physical activity rate of protein synthesis increases

true

2

as increased glucose post workout helps synthesize_______, increased protein post workout helps synthesize ______.

glycogen and protein

3

protein synthesis is driven by

physical activity

4

what can be changed alter protein synthesis in physical activity

repeated activity, signal genetics and expression of required protein

5

intensity and patterns of muscle contraction initiate signals that direct specific ______ _______

protein production

6

what protein for weight lifters would be?

more enzymes for glycogen

7

what protein for runners?

more protein for aerobic use.

8

how much in pounds and oz. does protein come from food

1/4 lbs. or 7-18oz.

9

what is the RDA for protein

0.8g/kg of body mass per day

10

why is 0.8 insufficient for athletes?

because it may be enough to prevent a deficiency however not enough to increase body mass

11

ACSM recommends what protein range for athletes

1.2-1.7

12

true or false: the more protein you consume the larger your muscles will become

false, it is not a linear relationship, and overconsumption will results in excess fat

13

during exercise is the best time to consume protein?

yes and after

14

true or false vitamins are essential

true

15

are vitamins caloric

no

16

does the body produce vitamins?

no, must come through diet

17

true or false: biomechanical processes and pathways use vitamins and minerals

true

18

what two forms do vitamins comes in

precursors and provitamins

19

what are the categories of vitamins

fat soluble and water soluble

20

what determines what category the vitamin is placed in?

absorption
transport
storage

21

what is a FSV absorbed?

lymph and require protein carriers

22

where is a FSC stored?

liver or fatty tissue

23

can FSV create a toxicity

yes

24

where are WSV absorbed

directly into the blood stream

25

where is the WSV stored?

little to n storage, excreted through the urine

26

what are the FSV

ADEK

27

how long can the body survive without FSV

weeks

28

what are the three active forms of VA

retinol
retinal
retinoic acid

29

where is retinol stored

liver

30

what is retinol converted to

retinal and retinoic acid

31

retinol is made from?

beta-carotene

32

what colour pigment is beta-carotene

orange with antioxidant activity

33

is VA a precursor or a provitamin

precursor

34

what are the functions of VA

gene expression, vision, skin maintenance, bone development reproduction

35

what are the two major roles in eyesight

light perception a the retina
cornea clarity

36

______- light sensitive pigment of the cells ( VA containing)

rhodopsin

37

what are the three stages in eye sight affected by VA

1. light passes through clear cornea
2. strikes the cells of the retina
3. bleaching molecules of rhodopsin

38

what is involved with bleaching molecules of rhodopsin

bleaching causes the VA to split off and sen signal to the optic N.
VA reunites after the process but some is lost and must be replaced
if not replaced lag time

39

night blindness is causes from what vitamin

a

40

what accumulates in the cornea if VA deficiency

keratin

41

what causes the cloudiness of the eyes

keratin

42

if keratinization is not corrected can lead to ____

xerosis (dying)
can lead to permanent thickening xerophalmia

43

how many children become blind each year due to VAD

.5 million

44

what vitamin is needed by all epithelial tissue

a

45

______ cells in the intestinal tract can be replaced by keratin secreting cells

goblet

46

immune system depends on what vitamin

a

47

VA- Growth in_______ ______ ______

long bone production

48

in what can VA supplementation improve [ in those that cannot get it out of diet ]

HIV
vision
growth

49

symptoms of VAT

hair loss, joint pain, abdominal pain, muscle soreness, amenorrhea, diarrhea, liver damage, rash etc,

50

VAT during pregnancy s a ______

teratogen

51

what can you die from eating

polar bear liver, high levels of VA

52

food sources for VA

meat sources
carrots 671mcg
spinach 472 mcg
apricots 100mcg

53

what is the most abundant carotenoid precursor

beta-carotene

54

beta carotene builds up in the fat just below___

skin

55

sunlight vit

D

56

VD is used by ____, _______&______

muscles nerves glands

57

VD ensure adequate amount of calcium in

blood

58

what does VDD cause

rickets

59

what is rickets

bowed legs
unable to synthesize new bone material

60

health Canada suggests breast fed babies to be supplemented with

VD

61

VDT damages

bones, nerves, kidney and brain

62

symptoms of VDT

appetite loss, nausea, vomiting and increased urination and thirst

63

a major problem with VDT

stimulates uptake/absorption of calcium and phosphorus

64

what population is most likely to have VDT

infants

65

VD synthesizes, UV light shines on __________in skin a VD________ is created and absorbed into the _________

cholesterol
precursor
blood

66

_____ & ______ concert VD to active form

liver and kidney

67

VDD most common in

northern cities and black people

68

true or false VE is an antioxidant

true - alpha tocopherol

69

what is the main defender againist oxidative damage

VE

70

is a VED common

no, it is very difficult to not obtain enough through diet

71

is VE recycled in the body

yes

72

true or false in the last weeks of pregnancy vitamins transfer to fetus

true

73

what is it called if the baby is born premature

erythrocyte hemolysis

74

VED is usual with

malabsorption

75

is VE lost with food is processed

yes

76

what is the DRI for VE

15mg/day 22IU/day

77

need increases for VE as people consume more ____

PUFA
but rich sources of PUFA tend to be high in VE

78

elevated intake from supplements up regulate _______ medication

anticoagulation (uncontrolled bleeding)

79

supplementation with>400 IU VE is associated with all cause

mortality

80

where is VE commonly found

vegetable oils, fruits, veg, fortified cereals, meat, eggs, milk, poultry, seeds, wheat germ

81

what vitamin synthesize protein for blood clotting and plays a role in bone formation

VK

82

what is a blood thinning medication

warfarin

83

people taking warfarin need to maintain a ________ intake of _______ to help ensure effective use

consistent
VK

84

______ can be given to those who suffer from bleeding while on _____

VK
warfarin

85

VK synthesized by

intestinal bacteria

86

newborns need to supplemented with VK due to lack of

intestinal bacteria

87

what are sources of VK

dark leafy veg

88

at risk of VKD with _____ use

antibiotic

89

main functions in the body for VE

antioxidant
stabilization of cell membranes
support immune function s
protect PUFA
normal nerve development

90

_______found in green leafy veg

phylloquinoes

91

_______ found in some dairy products

menaquinones

92

does VK play a role in bone formation

yes

93

what are the WSV

(Tender romance never fails with 6 or 12 beautify pearls)
thiamin
riboflavin
niacin
Folate
B6
B12
biotin
panthothenic acid

94

what letters are WSV

C B

95

true or false cooking in water WSV leak out of food

true

96

VC functions

maintains connective tissue, acts as an antioxidant

97

the _____ for formation and maintenance of collagen depends on _____

enzyme
VC

98

collagen forms basis for all connective tissue which includes

bones, teeth, skin and tendons

99

VC protects substance from being _____

oxidized

100

true or false cells of immune system maintain high levels of antioxidants to protect against damage from invaders- bacteria

true

101

in intestines VC protects___ from oxidations and promotes absorption

iron

102

true or false there is a correlation with VC supplementations and HD and cancer

false

103

large doses act as a ______ by activating oxidizing agents (iron and copper)

prooxidant

104

VDC can lead to

scurvy- attributed to the breakdown of collage in the absence of VC

105

symptoms of VCD

loss appetite growth cessation, tenderness to cough, weakness, bleeding gums, loose teeth, swollen ankles and wrists and red spots on skin

106

VCD can lead to ______ non heme iron is absorption is facilitated by _____

anemia
VC
low iron, low hemoglobin

107

VCT often consumed in ______ form due to association with cold.flu

supplement

108

with 2g VT alteration in _____ response to CHO, _____ upset

insulin
digestive
(nausea, cramps, excessive gas, diarrhea )

109

Mega dose of VC can interfere with

blood clotting

110

RDA for VC for Men and women

Men 90 mg/day
Women 70mg/day

111

true or false smoking reduces the VC requirements

false

112

sources of VC

orange juice
red peppers
broccoli

113

who researched common cold and VC

linus Pauling

114

association between blood histamine and 2 g vitamin c may be acting like a weak

antihistamine

115

three main roles of BV

coenzymes
role on metabolism
role in cell division

116

what is BV's role in coenzyme

small molecule that works with an enzyme to promote the enzymes activity

117

what is BV's role in metabolism

do not supply energy but enable body to use fat, CHO and AA as substrate

118

what is BV's role in cell division

essential to cells with rapid turnover
example red blood cells

119

thiamin critical role in _____ ______ in cells

energy metabolism

120

thiamin occupies site on ___ _______, never processes and their responding tissue depends on ______

nerve membrane
thiamin

121

thiamin D is called

beriberi

122

what is beriberi

loss of sensation of hands and feet, muscular weakness, paralysis and abnormal heart function

123

what are the two forms of beriberi

wet and dry

124

what is wet beriberi

foot or hand filled with fluid

125

what is dry beriberi

without edema

126

what is wericke- korsakoff syndrome

cluster of thiamin deficiency symptoms in chronic alcoholism
paralysis of eye muscles, poor coordination, impaired memory, nerve damage
may respond to supplementation with thiamine
in the presents of ETOH intestinal cells fail to absorb thiamine and increase in renal excretion

127

RDA for thiamin for men and women

men 1.2mg/day
women 1.1 mg/day

128

true or false pregnant women require more thiamin

true

129

what are sources of thiamin

whole wheat products
pork chops
black beans
sun flour seeds

130

riboflavin is energy _________ of all cells

metabolism

131

true or false symptoms of riboflavin often go undetected

true

132

true or false a diet that remedies thiamin deficiency also corrects riboflavin deficiency

true

133

what are sources of riboflavin

enriched bread, cereal, pasta, other grain products, milk and milk products

134

children that do not eat animal products have a good chance of having a _____ deficiency

riboflavin

135

Niacin deficiency disease called

pallegra

136

what is pallegra

began to occur with the increase in corn availability, diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and death

137

true or false protein intake increases niacin deficiency

false, tryptophan can be converted to niacin

138

niacin requirements is measure in niacin equivalents

true, account for tryptophan

139

niacin can be used as a treatment for ____

dyslipidemia

140

folate is a __ Vitamin that acts as part of the coenzyme important In the manufacture of new cells

b

141

deficiency of folate causes

anemia, diminisged immunity and abnormal digestive function
may also be related to CVD CA and Cervical CA

142

folate deficiency amemia is a combine

folate and B12 deficiency

143

neural tube defects associated with

folate deficiency

144

what is DRA for folate

400mcg/day for both men and women

145

B12 depends on ____ for activation

folate

146

without adequate ____ folate cannot build blood and folate - deficiency anemia results

B12
presents of latge immature blood cells

147

administration of folate but ____ deficiency goes undetected

B12

148

B12 maintain ___ around nerve fiver

sheath

149

when folate is supplemented without B12 in deficiency ___ _____ with symptoms can occure

nerve damage
paralysis

150

absorption of B12 require intrinsic factors such as

stomach acid in small intestines

151

lack of intrinsic factor can be an inherited defect and ____ must be supplied by injection

B12

152

anemia due lack of intrinsic factor is pernicious ____

anemia

153

VB ...inherent disorder with rise in AA ______ suffer from early CVD

homocystine

154

CVD often accumulate _____ in the blood

homocystine

155

deficiency of ____,____ &______ causes excess homocystine to build up in the blood

folate
B12
B6

156

when healthy men are supplemented with BV's

drop in homocystine
but correlation between low homocytsine and low CVD risk in unknown

157

what ___% adult persons weight is water

60

158

water is a universal solvent for

amino acids, glucose, minerals

159

waters role in cleansing body dissolves waste for excreted by the

kidneys

160

____ acts as a lubricant to cushion joints

water

161

water maintains specific ____ of different parts of the body such as eyes and spinal cord

pressure

162

water helps maintain

thermal temperature, sweating

163

true or false water does not participate in chemical reactions

false

164

imbalances of water are called

dehydration
water intoxication, over hydration

165

minor fluctuations of water occur when

menstruation
salt intake
sweat

166

when blood is too concentrated _____ shifts from ____ glands to blood

water
salivary

167

water concentration is monitored by

hypothalamus

168

thirst does occur until____ cups of water is lost

2

169

when __% body water is lost sweating stops

5

170

when sweating stops diverts water to _____ _____ to maintain ____ ______. body heat can build up

blood vessels
blood pressure

171

DRI for water for men and women

men 3.7l
women 2.7

172

what is a diuretics

a compound or medication causing increased water excretion

173

how many cups of tea or coffee can you drink in a day

3 coffee
4 tea

174

what is hard water

calcium, magnesium
leave ring around the tub, film in the kettle
may improve HTN

175

what is soft water

sodium
many bubbles
some evidence that sift water can aggravate heart disease and HTN

176

common signs of dehydration are:

thirst
dizziness
tiredness
nausea
chills
headache
muscle cramps

177

plenty of pale yellow urine is a sign you are

hydrated

178

sports drinks are better than water when

exercise is intense
lasts long than an hour
sweat a lot and notice a white salt on clothes
wearing a lot of protective equipment
weather is hot and humid
your fluid needs to be quickly replaced

179

sport drinks provide:

fluids to cool down the body and replace what you lost
carbohydrates for quick energy
sodium and potassium which are minerals lost in sweat

180

what to look for in a sports drinks

no carbonation
carbohydrates 40-80g/liter from different sources as glucose, sucrose, fructose and or maltodextrin
sodium: 300-700 mg/liter (or at least 70g/250ml )

181

true or false: a good sports drink includes amino acids, oxygen or herbal ingredients

false

182

what is hyponatremia

is a dangerous condition where the sodium in the blood falls too low. it may be caused by over drinking [ hyper-hydration] during sports events such as marathon or triathlon

183

signs of hyponatremia

weight gain
mental confusion
general weakness
seizure
coma
death

184

____ can dissolve in out of cells freely and _____ requires pumps

water
salt

185

salts dissolve in water contain an electrical charge____

electrolytes

186

_____ help manage acid-base balance or pH

mineral

187

slight changes in pH cause ____ to denature

proteins

188

what are the two minerals that are mandatory to put on the nutrition label

sodium and potassium

189

what is the most abundant mineral in the body

calcium

190

where is 99% of calcium stored

bones and teeth

191

true or false: bone calcium is in constant turnover

true

192

______ is also essential for bone mineralization

phosphorus

193

______ _______ crystallizes on the protein collagen

calcium phosphate

194

hydroxyapatite crystals -> hydroxyl is eventually replaced by ____ and ______ is created

fluoride
fluoapatite

195

how are teeth formed

hydroxyapatite crystals form on collagen matric creating dentin
turning over or minerals in teeth is less rapid in bone
fluoride is also used to stabilize and harden teeth (resists decay)

196

people with low intake of calcium are thought to be at higher risk of ____ &_____ cancer

colon and rectum

197

only __% of the body's calcium, is in the fluids that bathe and fill the cells

1

198

calcium is important for the regulation of

-transport of ions across cell membrane - nerve transmission
-normal blood pressure
- blood clotting
-muscle contraction and heartbeat
- secretion of hormones, digestive enzymes and neurotransmitters

199

____ calcium levels must be tightly controlled

serum

200

true or false there are minor fluctuations in blood calcium

true cells need continuous access to calcium

201

_____ is made in the thyroid, secreted whenever calcium concentration is too high- stops demineralization from bone and slows gut absorption of calcium

calcitonin

202

parathyroid hormone in regards to calcium

stimulates calcium uptake and bone demineralization

203

at what age do bones loss density

40

204

what is the second most abundant mineral in the body

phosphorus

205

where is 85% is found crystallized in ____ & ___

bones and teeth

206

what are four main functions for phosphorus

phosphorus salts used a buffer
phosphorus is part of DNA and RNA (growth & renewal )
phosphorus compounds store, release energy in the metabolism of nutrients
phosphorus is part of phospholipids

207

where is magnesium stored

bones, heart, liver and other soft tissue

208

what are the functions of magnesium

critical for cell functions
enzyme function
muscle relaxation

209

what deficiency can occur as a results of inadequate intake, vomiting, diarrhea alcoholism

magnesium

210

what is the main ion used to maintain the volume outside the cells

sodium

211

what filters excess sodium

kidney

212

when the blood sodium is high ____ gland releases _______ hormone and the kidney absorbs more___ and excrete a small amount of sodium

pituitary
antidiuretic
water

213

when blood sodium increase, water is retained to ____ concentration

dilute

214

when blood sodium drops, ____ is excreted

water

215

what is the major role of potassium

maintaining fluid and electrolyte status, cell integrity and heart beat

216

sudden death with eating disorders is thought to be secondary to _____ losses and heart failure

potassium

217

dehydration causes loss of __ within the cells

k, people isn't able to register dehydration

218

is iodine considered a trace mineral

yes

219

iodine - part of thryoxine a hormone made by the _____ gland and controls basal metabolic rate

thyroid

220

without___ thryoxine cannot be synthesized

iodine

221

in iodine deficiency cells of thyroid enlarge to trap as much ____ as possible

iodine

222

thyroxine deficiency

sluggish and gain weight

223

cretinism occur in utero when low iodine for infant development - ___ _____

mental retardation

224

where is most of the iron found in the body

as part of hemoglobin or myoglobin

225

hemoglobin

used for oxygen transport

226

RBC live for how many day

120

227

once RBC die what breaks them down and recycled where

liver and spleen and back to bone marrow

228

iron is a powerdul

oxidant

229

iron is a protein carriers are used to prevent _____ of iron with vulnerable compounds

interaction

230

iron deficiency anemia

RBC shrinkage secondary to lack of iron intake
weakness, apathy, headaches, pallor, intolerance to cold, inability to pay attention --> low )2 delivery

231

what is a typical blood test looking for

iron deficiency anemia

232

iron deficiency pica

a craving for non-food substances

233

what is clay eating called

geophagia

234

what is ice craving

pagophagia

235

iron deficiency blood loss

menstruation

236

world wide iron deficiency effects

1.2billion

237

iron overload occurs when _____ stores continue to absorb at high rates despite ____ __

intestinal
build up

238

iron overload symptoms

fatigue, depression, abdominal pain, liver failure, diabetes, abnormal heart beats,
must avoid VC supplements

239

iron in meat is bound to ____

heme

240

non heme iron found in ____

plants

241

factors that increase non heme absorption

VC

242

what impairs non heme iron absorption

phytates and tannins

243

what is body composition

proportions of the muscle bone fat and other tissues that up make up a persons weights

244

what is an overweight BMI

25-29

245

what is an underweight BMI

less than 18.5

246

what is an obese BMI

>20mg/m2

247

in what three populations should BMI not be used

athletes
pregnant/lactating
adults over 65

248

can you be healthy and obese

yes, genetic inheritance, abstinence from smoking and cardiovascular disease

249

over weight people can offer from

HTN, T2DM, heart disease

250

large waist circumference can be a risk of

T2DM, CAD, HTN

251

what is a obese women and men waist circumference

men >102cm or 40 inches
women >88cm or 35 inches

252

_____ fat increases risk of diabetes, HTN, stroke, CAD

visceral

253

____ fat is readily released into the blood stream contributes to cholesterol carrying lipoproteins -____

visceral
LDL

254

is pear or apple associated with better health

pear

255

smokers- ____ overall body weight but higher central ___

less
adiposity

256

moderate to high intakes of ETOH assoicted with ____ _____ ____

higher central adiposity

257

____, ____ &_____ all need to be considered together

BMI
central adiposity
disease risk factors

258

what is wasting disease

progressive relentless loss of body tissue that accompanies disease and shortens survival time

259

what is wasting disease associated with

being under weight

260

during a famine what are people at risk of

wasting disease

261

what is: strong unpleasant sensation that signals need for food, physiological need to eat

hunger

262

hunger is triggered by the _____ of an empty ___ &_____ _____ and the hormone ____ released between meals

contraction
stomach and small intestine
ghrelin

263

what is: desire to eat, a learned motivation and sensation that accompanies the sight, smell or thought of food

appetite

264

______ endogenous opiates, reduce pain and induce pleasure

endorphins

265

what is: perception of fullness that builds throughout the meal

satiation

266

what is satiation

perception o fullness that build throughout the meal

267

as food enters the stomach ___ ___ are triggered

stretch receptors

268

nutrients in the small intestine elicit ____ & _____ signals to brain 'fed'

nervous
hormonal

269

______ is a peptide hormone produced by adipose tissue- linked with appetite control and body fatness

leptin

270

leptin operates on _______ mechanism - body fatness stimulates leptin reducing food _____

feedback
consumption

271

appetite regulations include

hormones
inborn appetites
learned preference
customary eating habits
social interactions
some disease states

272

hormones
inborn appetites
learned preference
customary eating habits
social interactions
some disease states

appetite regulations

273

what is anthropometry

direct body measures

274

what is included in anthropometry

skin fold test
waist circumference

275

waist circumference measures ______ fatness

visceral

276

_____ _______ _____ provide accurate measures when taken by trained tech

skin fold test

277

bodpod measures what

air displacement, pletheysmography

278

what is considered the gold standard

bodpod

279

bodpod the measurement of body weight compared with ______

volume

280

lean tissue is _____ dense than fat tissue

more

281

only ____ tissue and water conduct electrical current

lean

282

____- bioelectrical impedance analysis measure how easily electrical charge transmits throughout the body

BIA

283

what id conductivity

a body composition measurement using electrical current

284

radiographic techniques - new technology yields images of ____ ____ & _____ _____

body tissue and body composition

285

what does DEXA stand for

dual x-ray absorptiometry

286

2 xrays pass through the body provide _____ of body composition including bone mineral _____

breakdown
density