Flashcards in HIV 1 and 2 Deck (57)
Where does the HIV virus bind?
CD4 molecules on lymphocytes, macrophages, and glial cells
Proliferation of HIV virus is activated by what?
Cell activation of the CD4 related molecules
What kills the CD4 cells?
Cell lysis from viral replication or immune response to infected cells
What happens to uninfected CD4 cells?
They are activated and die by activation induced cell apoptosis
Approach to HIV treatment?
Inhibit viral replication and activation of infected cell
At what CD4 level do you have AIDs?
Which secretes have higher level of the virus genital or plasma?
Concurrent inflammation/infections can lead to high transmission rates due to?
Breaks in mucosa
How does the virus get in?
Breaks in mucosa or adhereance to dendritic cells in the mucosa
Co-receptor for entry into the cells?
Where are high amounts of CCR5 found?
Genital dendritic cells and GI lymphoid tissue
Resistant individuals are homozygous for what mutation?
What mutation happens late in infection?
CCR5 receptors change to CXCR4
Difference between CCR5 and CXCR4?
CCR5 on monocytes and lymphocytes
CXCR4 on T-lymphocytes
What can delay the switch from CCR5 to CXCR4?
Viral replication inhibitors
What does CXCR4 cause?
Syncitia formation of lymphoid tissues
What serves as a viral reservouir?
Seeding of lymphoid tissue throughout body
Where is there an increase in viral proliferation and cytotoxicity?
What do follicular dendritic cells serve as?
Viral reservoir due to no migration
What causes the initial decay of CD4?
Virus specific CD8 T-cell response
In the absence of significant levels of plasma viral RNA what will happen to HIV?
Continues to proliferate in lymphoid reservoirs
What is goal of HIV therapy?
Prolong latent phase
What 3 factors destroy the immune system?
Viral evolutionary changes
Where is there extensive early loss of CD4?
Major problem with early loss of CD4 from peyer's patches?
Products of gut pathogens released and activate mmune system which activates immune cells
How does HIV affect CD8?
Makes them sticky (CD69)
Retains them within lymph nodes