Flashcards in JAALAS 2011 No. 6 Deck (54)
1. Who enforces the guidelines and regulations made by the USDA?
1. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
2. What document spells out the guidelines and regulations of the UDSA relative to animals used in research?
2. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 9
3. What are three general criteria for considering a pair to be compatible on the day of pairing?
3. If there are no aggressive interactions resulting in severe injury, no signs of depression in either animal, and both are able to obtain their share of food.
What is fibrinogen?
Fibrinogen is a glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, is a soluble precursor of insoluble fibrin, and a major component of blood clots.
What is an important role of fibrinogen?
Fibrinogen plays an important role in platelet aggregation by linking activated platelets. Activated platelets express the integrin αIIb β3, which binds plasma fibrinogen as well as that secreted from activated platelet granules.
What disorders can affect fibrogen?
The function and quality of plasma fibrinogen can be altered by both inherited and acquired disorders. Some common causes of decreased fibrinogen concentration are increased consumption during localized or disseminated intravascular coagulation, severe hepatic dysfunction, and hemodilution. Low plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with an increased risk of bleeding, due to impaired primary or secondary hemostasis. Fibrinogen is a positive acute-phase protein that increases in response to inflammatory processes.
What does Pearson correlation coefficient test?
In statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient is a measure of the correlation between two variables (linear dependence).
1. The newest edition of the Guide gives very specific cage change frequencies for rodents.
1. F. The frequency is to be determined on a performance-based approach.
2. Female mice were found to cause higher ammonia levels than cages of male mice.
2. F. Cages with 5 male mice were found to have the highest ammonia concentrations.
3. Long term housing of mice should aim at having ammonia levels ≤ 25 ppm.
4. Experienced animal care workers are very skilled at visually identifying cages which have dangerous ammonia levels.
4. F. Visual inspection was unreliable in determining air quality.
5. There are very minimal pathologic changes seen in animals housed in even very high levels of ammonia.
5. F. This team found quite a bit of pathology. Also, they found that experienced animal workers could not identify animal with pathologic rhinitis ante-mortem.
1. In OTC, the intercage temperature, humidity, CO2 and ammonia (microenvironment) is influenced directly by _______.
1. Room environment (macroenvironment)
What does HEPA stand for?
2. High-efficiency particulate air
What are some advantages of IVC?
3. reduction of pathogen transmission, reduction of cage changing frequency, increased housing capacity, and reduction of allergen exposure for personnel
True or False: ATP detection devices offer multiple advantages over traditional bacterial culture because they are cost effective and time efficient and show a superior reproducibility and sensitivity
ATP detection devices have limitations:
a. Gram negative bacteria are poorly detected
b. Protein-only soiling are poorly detected
c. Bleach, temperature and pH can affect the accuracy of the results
d. All of the above
e. None of the above
When choosing wood as environmental enrichment one must take into consideration
a. The species of wood
b. The way the wood wears
c. The color of the wood
d. a, c
e. a, b
1. Which is an example of a stereotypical behavior?
a. Head twist
b. Partner clasp
d. Threat bite
a. The rest are self abusive or abnormal social behaviors
2. A reason for the variability with stereotypical behavior reduction was that the methods of distribution of the enrichment devices may have led to stress and fear. According to this assumption which device was the least stressful and why?
a. Puzzle Balls were easy to manipulate
b. Shakers were not very novel
c. Supertubes were given without opening the cage door.
c. This explained why supertubes were the only device in which no significant increase in stereotypy was observed.
1. To measure ATP, a swab is taken of the surface, the swab placed in the lumenometer, and the level of ATP present is recorded as Relative Light Units (RLU). T/F
2. The use of the ATP detection systems have been validated as a surrogate to assess cleanliness/disinfection as compared to what traditional method for doing so?
3. What are some advantages of an ATP detection system as compared to RODAC plating?
3. ATP detection systems produce much faster results (minutes compared to days) and ATP detection systems assess microbial burden but also organic contamination beyond microbial burden whereas RODAC only does the former.
1. T/F: This study indicates that biomedical journals are more likely to have an ethical policy for animal experiments than broader biologic journals.
2. What are the 3Rs?
a. Reduce, reuse, recycle
b. Replacement, Refinement, Reduction
c. Research, Refinement, Reduction
d. Research, Replacement and Reduction
3. What is a goal of the ARRIVE guidelines?
a. To improve reporting of research using animals without being prescriptive
b. To specifically prescribe ethical policy for published animal experiments
c. To improve research animal transport
d. To guide study design in animal experiments
What are the details of the life cycle (how many days in each stage) for A. tetraptera?
Aspiculuris tetraptera prepatent period is 21-25 days; larvae hatch in colon, where they remain for 3-5 days, before adult worms migrate to distal colon. The eggs are excreted in the feces, and are not infective for 5-8 days. Female worms have a lifespan of 45-50 days.
What are two common drug therapies used for eliminating pinworm infestation?
Ivermectin and fenbendazole
Yes or No - Would an anal tape test be an appropriate method for A. tetraptera detection?
No - only Syphacia obvelata eggs stick to the perianal hair.