Lecture 23 - Endosymbiosis + Eukaryotic Diversity (SI) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 23 - Endosymbiosis + Eukaryotic Diversity (SI) Deck (26):
1

Serial Endosymbiosis

-hypothesis for origin of eukaryotes

2

3 proposals of serial endosymbiosis

1. ancestors of mitochondria = aerobic, heterotrophic prokaryotic endosymbionts (alpha)
2. ancestors of chloroplasts = photosynthetic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria)
3. ancestral host = archaean/proto-eukaryote (diverged from archaeal ancestors)

3

What are 5 pieces of evidence?

chloroplasts/mitochondria + bacteria have similar:
1. size
2. transcription tools
3. enzymes + transport systems
4. replication
5. ribosomes

4

Kleptoplastidity

stealing + using chloroplasts from prey
-passed from generation to generation

5

What are 2 qualities of plastid evolution?

1. mitochondria arose through descent from bacterium engulfed by cell from archaeal lineage
2. photosynthetic cyanobacterium was engulfed by hetertrophic eukaryote

6

What did plastid bearing lineage evolve into?

-photosynthetic protists
-red and green algae

7

What is the evolutionary sequence of land plants?

1. cyanobacteria
2. green algae
3. land plants

8

how did mitochondria originate?

from engulfed, originally free-living proteobacteria

9

What catalyzed the 3 adaptive radiations?

1. metabolic
2. structural
3. multicellularity

10

protists

eukaryotic organisms capable of existence as single cells

11

Protists often contain _____ at some point in their lifecyle

flagella/cilia

12

What are Euglena?

-single-celled mixotrophic protist
-live photosynthetically/herterotrophically

13

Fungus-like

absorptive nutrition

14

Protozoa

ingestive, animal like nutrition

15

Algae

photosynthetic plant like

16

What are the 3 ecological categories of protists?

1. protozoa
2. fungus-like
3. algae

17

What are eukaryotic flagella?

-extensions of cytoplasm with a support of 9 + 2 microtubule system

18

What are 4 parasites

1. plasmodium (maleria)
2. P. ramorum (sudden oak death)
3. P. shumayae (kills fish)
4. P. infestans (potato late blight)

19

What are cysts?

-resistant cells formed by protists
-can survive harsh conditions

20

Plankon

communities of organisms that drift passively or swim weakly in the water

21

Size of microbial eukaryotes

-single celled (mostly, protists)

22

Diversity of microbial eukaryotes

tens of thousands of described species

23

2 types of microbial eukaryotic nutrition

1. Photosynthetic (microalgae)
2. Engulfment (protozoa)

24

3 types of microbial eukaryotic reproduction

1. binary fission (most common)
2. sexual reproduction/recombination
3. budding + multiple fission (least common)

25

Distribution of microbial eukaryotes

every biotic ecosystem on the planet

26

many protists are important ______ that obtain energy from the sun

producers