Lecture 7- Metacarpus, phalanges and joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7- Metacarpus, phalanges and joints Deck (68):
1

What goes through the axial foramen of the hoof in cattle?

Principal artery

2

What articulates with the tubercle for the deep digital flexor in cattle?

Deep digital flexor

3

What is a sign of uneven horn growth in horses?

rings on side of hoof

4

What is hoof cartilage attached to?

palmar process of distal phalanx

5

What is the function of hoof cartilage?

Increasing the surface are for hte horn of the hoof to attach

6

What is another name for the hoof?

corium

7

What divides wall from bulb in bovine foot?

Abaxial groove

8

What are the three major joints in the foot?

PIP, DIP, and MCP

9

What is the fetlock?

Metacarpophalangeal joint

10

What is involved in the fetlock?

MCIII, PI, and proximal sesamoid bones

11

What type of movement occurs at the fetlock?

Extension with relatively high mobility

12

What connects MCIII and PI together?

medial and lateral collateral ligaments

13

What are the major ligaments of the fetlock?

Collateral, Straight, and Oblique collateral ligaments

14

What joins the proximal sesamoids?

Think palmar ligament

15

What does the collateral sesamoidean ligament do?

Connect the sesamoid to the sides of the metacarpal condyle and proximal tubercles of the PI

16

What ligaments connect base of sesamoid bones to first phalanx?

Deepest, cruciate, and obilque

17

What is the point of the sesamoid bone to phalanx ligaments?

ensures sesamoid move agains metacarpal concyle in unison with PI

18

What connects ses. to the fibrocartilage of PII?

Straight sesamoidiean ligament

19

What is the pastern?

Proximal interphalangeal joint

20

What movement occurs at the pastern?

restricted flexion and extension

21

What do the palmar ligaments connect?

Palmar aspect of PI w/ complementary fibrocartilage of PII

22

What do the palmar ligaments do?

Limit overextension

23

What do the palmar ligaments interact with?

Straight sesamoidean bone

24

What are the branches of the palmar ligaments?

Axial and Abaxial

25

What is the coffin?

Distal interphalangeal joint

26

What movement occurs at the coffin?

Flexion and extension to the same degree as the pastern

27

What is the major bone in the coffin?

Navicular bone

28

Where is the navicular bone located?

Suspended from the distal extremity of PI

29

What ligaments interact with the navicular bone?

Navicular ligaments

30

What are the branches of the navicular ligaments?

Collateral and distal

31

Tendons from what muscles enter the foot to the metacarpal bone?

EDC and EDL

32

Tendons from what muscles enter the foot caudal to the MC bone?

FDS and FDP

33

What role does the interosseus muscle play?

Support of the fetlock

34

What is the origin of the interosseus muscle?

Palmar carpal ligament and adjacent part of large metacarpal bone

35

What is the path of the interosseus muscle?

between splint bones and divides above the fetlock, two division are easily felt

36

What is the insertion of the interosseus muscle?

proximal sesamoid bones

37

What occurs to the interosseous muscle in metacarpus (bovine?)?

Give five principal branches

38

Where do four of the interosseous muscle branches go?

proximal sesamoid bones

39

What does the arrangement of the interosseous muscle with the other tendons do?

form sling, tenses when foot bears weight and fetlock is overextended

40

What is the check ligament for the superficial digital flexor?

Band formed by interosseous muscle on palmar surface and joins bands of SDF

41

What are the three major palmar a. in the horse?

Medial/lateral palmar a.
Medial/lateral palmar metacarpal aa.

42

What branches off the medial palmar a.?

Medial/lateral digital a.

43

What is the most important artery?

Medial palmar a.

44

What is the medial artery a continuation of?

Median a.

45

What is the lateral palmar a. a descendent of?

Collateral ulnar a.

46

What supplies blood to branches of the interosseous?

medial/lateral palmar metacarpal a.

47

What branches does the ulnar nerve give off?

Palmar and dorsal

48

What does the dorsal branch n. do?

Sensory from skin over lateral surface of metacarpus

49

What is the palmar branch n. a terminal branch of?

median n.

50

What is the main nerve in the forearm?

Median n.

51

What does the Median n. divide into?

Medial and lateral palmar n.

52

What does the lateral palmar n. exchange fibers with?

palmar branch of the ulnar n.

53

What does the lat. palmar n. supply?

Interosseous and palmar pouch of fetlock

54

When does the lat. palmar n. become subcutaneous?

distal end of splint bones - supply dorsal pouch

55

What does the medial palmar n. become above the fetlock?

medial digital n.

56

What happens to the medial digital n.?

gives rise to one or two dorsal branches

57

Where does the medial palmar n. end?

Supplying laminar and sole dermis

58

What muscle prevents the shoulder from flextion?

internal biceps tendon

59

What is passive-stay apparatus?

weight of trunk does not pass directly through joint axis of rotation, allows horses to stand for a long time

60

What does the lacertus fibrosus do?

At distal end pull of bicep transmitted to ECR (which is fixed on MCII)

61

How is overextension prevented?

close-packing of carpal cranial
palmar carpal ligaments caudal

62

What action does lacertus fibrosus (w/ other tendons) prevent?

support carpal joint and prevent joint buckling forward

63

What three things prevent the fetlock from overextension?

interosseus, proximal sesamoid bones, and distal sesamoidean ligaments

64

What occurs at the DIP joint when deep flexor tendon as tension?

flexion

65

What is the flexion of the DIP joint counteracted by?

pull on the extensor process of bone at impact
keep hoof level

66

What is overextension of PIP joint prevented by?

Axial and abaxial palmar ligaments
Straight sesamoidean ligaments

67

What prevents buckling forward of PIP?

FDS

68

What forces prevent the elbow joint from flexing?

Passive tension of tendons from carpal and digital flexors
Eccentrically placed collateral ligaments