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Flashcards in Mandarin- Grammar Rules Deck (10):
0

Golden Rule - Sentence Structure

- Subject (who or what) + when + where + how + action (verb+object)
- When + subject + where + how + action
- Subject + verb + object

1

Verb: action

The particle "le" can be added to a verb to indicate the action has been complete. Ta qule shanghai (he has gone to shanghai)

For things that happened some time in the unspecified past the particle "guo" is used. Ta quguo shanghai (he's been to shanghai)

The verb Shi (are/am/is) is used when?

Shi is used
- next to a noun and unlike english it is never used next to an adjective

I am a teacher: wo shi lăoshī
I'm thirsty: wo kě le

2

Adjective: Describes nouns
Adverb: Describes verbs

Adjectives and adverbs go where?

Adjectives and adverbs go
- before the noun its describing, same as English.

Wo hen hao (hen is the adverb)

3

Noun: person place or thing

Nouns do not show what two things?

Nouns do not show:
- gender (masculine or feminine)
- number (singular or plural)

Lunch/lunches: wufan (noon-rice)

4

Preposition: giving instruction, indicating location/time, pointing things out

After
Before
Reverse
Until

hòu (hoe)
qián (chian)
dào

5

Questions, asking, answering, negatives

When answering a question you repeat or deny the verb, there is no common yes or no.

Ni è ma = è or bu è

Who
Where
What times (when)
What
In order to do what (why)
How
Which

Shei/shui
Nali/nar
Shenme shihou
Shenme
Wei shen-me (way shen-muh)
Zenme yang
Nage

6

Have
Not have

-Possessing

yǒu
méiyǒu

7

That
That one
This
This one

-Demonstratives, giving instructions, indicating location, pointing things out

nà (nah)
nà ge (nah ga)
zhè (juh)
zhè ge (juh ga)

8

And
Or

Conjunctions: to connect two word or phrases. Asking questions, making statements

hé (hu)
háishi (hi shur)

9

Classifiers: are found between a number and a noun. There are different classifieds for several categories of nouns.

The general classifier used to describe any noun is:

Ge (guh)