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Flashcards in MicroBioFinal Deck (101)
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31

List the steps in viral replication for naked virsuses using the Lytic Cycle

1. attach
2. penetration
3. biosynthesis
4. assembly and maturation
5. release by lysis

Enveloped virus release by budding (has uncoating step)

32

How do enveloped viruses leave their host cells?

budding

33

what are prions?

misfolded proteins that infect others

34

how do bacterial cells divide?

binary fission

35

what happens to a cell with a cell wall in a hypertonic environment?

plasmolysis occurs

- hypertonic without cell wall = cell shrivels up
- isotonic with cell wall or no cell wall = flaccid
- hypotonic with cell wall = turgid, without cell wall = cytolysis

36

which channel protein move 3 billion water molecules per second across the plasma membrane?

aquaporins

37

which structure do some bacteria use to grab on to their environment?

attachment pilus

38

what is the capsule form of the glycocalyx used for?

To protect bacteria from the immune system

39

which proteins in the plasma membrane move molecules based on their size, shape, and diffusion?

carrier proteins

40

describe the gram+ cell wall

has techtoic acid that holds everything together and has a thick layer of peptidoglycan

41

what is the primary stain in the gram stain?

crystal violet

42

what is the composition of cytosol?

70-80% water, dissolved sugars, salts, ions, and minerals

43

what does the endosymbiotic theory claim?

Smaller organisms invade a larger organism and then mutualism occurs

44

which motor proteins carry vesicles along the cytoskeleton?

dynein arms

45

what is the error rate for RNA polymerase?

1/10,000

46

which 2 enzymes are responsible for DNA replication?

DNA helicase and DNA polymerase

47

what is the hereditary material for the cell?

DNA

48

transcribe the following sequence:
AGCTAGTTAGCA

UCGAUCAAUCGU

DNA to RNA

49

the RNA molecule responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein assembly is the ____?

tRNA

50

if a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a ____ mRNA codon

UCG

51

the enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of mRNA is

RNA polymerase

52

what is transcription?

DNA is copied to mRNA

53

generally, plasmids carry which type of genetic material?

nonessential genes

54

which enzyme converts O2 into hydrogen peroxide?

superoxide dismutase (SOD)

55

which organisms do not produce catalase or superoxide dismutase?

obligate anerobe

56

the term facultative anerobe refers to an organism that:

- prefers O2
- can live without O2

57

an organism that prefers to live in low pH environments is called a _______

acidophile

58

which enzyme converts hydrogen peroxide into water and O2?

catalase (CAT)

59

what does the Competitive Exclusion Principle predict will happen to the less advantaged organism?

1. less advantaged will be out competed by preferred organism
2. less advantaged will be forced into a new niche

60

during Aerobic Cellular Respiration, ATP is produced by which enzyme?

ATP synthase