Flashcards in MicroBioFinal Deck (101)
List the steps in viral replication for naked virsuses using the Lytic Cycle
4. assembly and maturation
5. release by lysis
Enveloped virus release by budding (has uncoating step)
How do enveloped viruses leave their host cells?
what are prions?
misfolded proteins that infect others
how do bacterial cells divide?
what happens to a cell with a cell wall in a hypertonic environment?
- hypertonic without cell wall = cell shrivels up
- isotonic with cell wall or no cell wall = flaccid
- hypotonic with cell wall = turgid, without cell wall = cytolysis
which channel protein move 3 billion water molecules per second across the plasma membrane?
which structure do some bacteria use to grab on to their environment?
what is the capsule form of the glycocalyx used for?
To protect bacteria from the immune system
which proteins in the plasma membrane move molecules based on their size, shape, and diffusion?
describe the gram+ cell wall
has techtoic acid that holds everything together and has a thick layer of peptidoglycan
what is the primary stain in the gram stain?
what is the composition of cytosol?
70-80% water, dissolved sugars, salts, ions, and minerals
what does the endosymbiotic theory claim?
Smaller organisms invade a larger organism and then mutualism occurs
which motor proteins carry vesicles along the cytoskeleton?
what is the error rate for RNA polymerase?
which 2 enzymes are responsible for DNA replication?
DNA helicase and DNA polymerase
what is the hereditary material for the cell?
transcribe the following sequence:
DNA to RNA
the RNA molecule responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein assembly is the ____?
if a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a ____ mRNA codon
the enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of mRNA is
what is transcription?
DNA is copied to mRNA
generally, plasmids carry which type of genetic material?
which enzyme converts O2 into hydrogen peroxide?
superoxide dismutase (SOD)
which organisms do not produce catalase or superoxide dismutase?
the term facultative anerobe refers to an organism that:
- prefers O2
- can live without O2
an organism that prefers to live in low pH environments is called a _______
which enzyme converts hydrogen peroxide into water and O2?
what does the Competitive Exclusion Principle predict will happen to the less advantaged organism?
1. less advantaged will be out competed by preferred organism
2. less advantaged will be forced into a new niche