Practical 1 - The vertebral column and spinal cord Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Practical 1 - The vertebral column and spinal cord Deck (78):
1

A typical vertebral column has how many vertebra?

33

2

What does the body of a typical vertebra support and what is it connected to?

Supports - vertebral column

Connected to - intervertebral discs

3

What are the subdivisions of the vertebral arch of a typical vertebra?

1. Pedicle
2. Lamina
3. Paired superior and inferior articular processes which protrude posterior to the vertebral notches
4. Spinous and transverse processes

4

What do the spinous and transverse processes allow?

attachments of muscles and ligaments

5

What region of vertebra is the smallest?

Cervical vertebrae

6

What is a distinctive feature of cervical vertebra?

transverse foramina (foramen transversarium)

7

What are the transverse foramina (foramen transversarium) like in C7?

smaller or absent than the other cervical vertebra

8

What structure passes through the transverse foramina?

vertebral arteries and veins

9

Which cervical vertebral don't follow the typical vertebra structure?

C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis)

10

What are the spinous processes of C3 to C6 vertebrae like?

short and bifid

11

What is the spinous process of C7 like and what is it used as?

very long

used as - bony landmark to count vertebra

12

What is another name for C7?

vertebra prominens

13

What are the features of C1 (atlas)? (3)

1. no spinous process
2. anterior and posterior arches
3. tubercle each on medial surface of the lateral mass for the transverse ligament

14

What are the features of C2 (axis)? (2)

1. 2 large flat surfaces producing the superior articular facets
2. dens/ odontoid process

15

What is the vertebral body of thoracic vertebrae like?

-heart shaped
- has superior and inferior costal demi facets which articulate with the head of the rib

16

What is the spinous process like for thoracic vertebrae?

- long
- extends posteroinferiorly

17

What is the transverse process for thoracic vertebrae like?

- costal facet for articulation with tubercle of rib

18

What direction do the articular facets in thoracic vertebrae face?

- superior articular facets face posteriorly
- inferior articular facets face anteriorly

19

What is the vertebral body like for lumbar vertebrae?

- large

20

What direction do articular facets facets face in lumbar vertebra?

- superior articular facets face medially
- inferior articular facets face laterally

21

What is the spinous process like for lumbar vertebrae?

- short and sturdy

22

What are vertebrae held together by? (3)

- facet joints
- intervertebral discs
-ligaments

23

What are facets joints also known as and what do they connect?

- zygapophyseal joints
- connect superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae

24

Where are intervertebral discs found?

- all non-fused vertebrae

25

What do intervertebral discs do?

- provide flexibility to the spine
- acts as shock absorbers

26

What do ligaments do?

- bind the vertebrae together to provide stability

27

What is the intervertebral disc composed of? (2)

- annulus fibrosus
- nucleus pulposus

28

What is the structure and location of annulus fibrosus?

structure - fibrocartilage ring

location - attached to epiphyseal rim of vertebral body (outer ring)

29

What is the structure and location of the nucleus pulposus?

structure - gelantinous substance - shock absorber

location - inner ring

30

What are the attachments of the anterior longitudinal ligament? (2)

- occipital bone
- C1 to Sacrum

31

What is the function of the anterior longitudinal ligament?

resists hyperextension of the vertebral column

32

What are the attachments of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

C2 to Sacrum

33

What is the function of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

prevents posterior herniation of IV discs and resists hyper flexion

34

What are the attachments of the ligamentum flavum?

between laminae of adjacent vertebrae

35

What is the function of the ligamentum flavum?

- binds lamina of adjacent vertebrae
- resists separation of laminae in flexion
- assists extension back to anatomical position

36

What are the attachments of ligamentum nuchae? (6)

- base of triangle
- skull
- external occipital protuberance to foramen magnum
- apex --> CVII spinous process
- deep side -posterior tubercle of C1
- spinous process of other vertebrae

37

What is the function of ligamentum nuchae?

- supports the head
- resists flexion
- facilitates returning to normal anatomical position
- attachment for adjacent muscles

38

What are the attachments for interspinous ligaments?

- between adjacent vertebral spinous processes
- base to the apex of each spinous process

39

what is the function of interspinous ligaments?

limits flexion of spine

40

What grows at a faster rate - the vertebral column or spinal cord?

vertebral column

41

At which vertebral level does the spinal cord end in a newborn?

L3

42

At which vertebral level does the spinal cord end in an adult?

L1/L2

43

What meninges cover the spinal cord? (3)

- dura mater
- arachnoid mater
- pia mater

44

What is the space between the dura and arachnoid mater called?

subdural space

45

What is the space between the arachnoid and pia mater?

subarachnoid space

46

What does the subdural space contain?

potential space with lymph like fluid

47

What does the subarachnoid space contain?

CSF

48

What is the space between the dura and the vertebrae called?

epidural or extradural space

49

What does the epidural or extradural space contain?

- fat
- small blood vessels

50

Where do the anterior and posterior spinal arteries originate from?

vertebral arteries

51

What does the anterior spinal artery supply?

anterior 2/3rds of the spinal cord

52

What does the posterior spinal artery supply?

posterior 1/3 of spinal cord

53

What is the venous drainage like for the spinal cord?

1. anterior and posterior spinal veins
2. anterior and posterior radicular veins
3. communicate with internal vertebral plexus in epidural space
4. drains into the cerebral dural venous sinuses and cerebral veins and external vertebral plexus

54

What is a distinctive feature of spinal veins of the spinal cord?

they are valveless so that blood passes directly into the systemic venous system

55

What do each vertebral level connect to in terms of veins?

- thoracic
- abdominal
- intercostal veins
- external vertebral venous plexus

56

What is the path along which prostatic neoplastic cells metastasise to the central nervous system?

- along the continuity of the vertebral venous plexus with the prostatic plexus

57

What is the caudal equina?

- collection of dorsal and ventral roots of the lower lumbar, sacral and coccygeal segmental spinal nerves.
- bundle of spinal nerves and roots

58

What nerves does the caudal equina involve and where do they arise from?

L2-L5 and S1-S5 and Co1

- these arise from the lumbar enlargement and conus medullaris

59

What does the spinal nerve emerge as in the upper part of the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramen?

- anterior primary ramus and posterior primary ramus

60

What 2 groups can the muscles of the back be divided into?

1. deep (intrinsic)
2. superficial (extrinsic)

61

What are the extrinsic muscles of the back innervated by?

- ventral rami of spinal nerves
- accessory nerve

62

What are the extrinsic muscles of the back divided into?

- superficial
- intermediate groups

63

What muscles are involved in the superficial division of the extrinsic back muscles? (5)

1. rhomboid major
2. rhomboid minor
3. trapezius
4. latissimus dorsi

64

What muscles are involved in the intermediate division of the extrinsic back muscles? (2)

1. Serratus posterior superior
2. Serratus posterior inferior

65

What do the intermediate extrinsic back muscles act as?

weak accessory muscles for respiration

66

What are the intrinsic back muscles innervated by?

posterior rami of spinal nerves

67

What 3 groups are the intrinsic back muscles divided into?

1. superficial
2. intermediate
3. deep

68

What does the superficial group of the intrinsic back muscles contain?

the splenius muscles on the posterolateral surfaces pf the neck

69

What 2 parts can the splenius muscles be divided into and what does this division depend on?

1. Splenius capitus
2. Spenius cervicus

depends - on their insertions

70

What are the attachments of the splenius captius? (5)

1. Lower 1/2 of ligamentum nuchae
2. spinous process of CVII to TIV
3. mastoid process
4. Skull
5.below lateral 1/3 of superior nuchal line

71

What is the action of the splenius capitus? (2)

1. draw head backwards extending the neck
2. draw and rotate head from one side to the other - turning face to one side

72

What are the attachments of the splenius cervicis?

1. spinous process of TIII to TVI
2. transverse processes of CI to CIII

73

What is the action of splenius cervicis?

1. extend neck
2. draw and rotate head to one side - turn face to one side

74

What does muscles the intermediate group of the intrinsic back muscles compromise of and where do they lie?

Large erector spinae muscles

lie - each side of the vertebral column

75

What is the function of the erector spinae muscle?

- main extensor of the vertebral column

76

What 3 muscles forms the erector spinae muscle?

1. Spinalis
2. Longissimus
3. Iliocostalis

77

Where do the deep group of intrinsic back muscles originate and insert and what is this group called?

originate - transverse processes of the vertebrae

insert - spinous process of more superior vertebrae

called - transversospinalis group

78

Which muscles makes up the transversospinalis group of the deep group of the intrinsic back muscles?

1.semispinalis
2. multifidis
3. rotares