Flashcards in Practical 1 - The vertebral column and spinal cord Deck (78)
A typical vertebral column has how many vertebra?
What does the body of a typical vertebra support and what is it connected to?
Supports - vertebral column
Connected to - intervertebral discs
What are the subdivisions of the vertebral arch of a typical vertebra?
3. Paired superior and inferior articular processes which protrude posterior to the vertebral notches
4. Spinous and transverse processes
What do the spinous and transverse processes allow?
attachments of muscles and ligaments
What region of vertebra is the smallest?
What is a distinctive feature of cervical vertebra?
transverse foramina (foramen transversarium)
What are the transverse foramina (foramen transversarium) like in C7?
smaller or absent than the other cervical vertebra
What structure passes through the transverse foramina?
vertebral arteries and veins
Which cervical vertebral don't follow the typical vertebra structure?
C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis)
What are the spinous processes of C3 to C6 vertebrae like?
short and bifid
What is the spinous process of C7 like and what is it used as?
used as - bony landmark to count vertebra
What is another name for C7?
What are the features of C1 (atlas)? (3)
1. no spinous process
2. anterior and posterior arches
3. tubercle each on medial surface of the lateral mass for the transverse ligament
What are the features of C2 (axis)? (2)
1. 2 large flat surfaces producing the superior articular facets
2. dens/ odontoid process
What is the vertebral body of thoracic vertebrae like?
- has superior and inferior costal demi facets which articulate with the head of the rib
What is the spinous process like for thoracic vertebrae?
- extends posteroinferiorly
What is the transverse process for thoracic vertebrae like?
- costal facet for articulation with tubercle of rib
What direction do the articular facets in thoracic vertebrae face?
- superior articular facets face posteriorly
- inferior articular facets face anteriorly
What is the vertebral body like for lumbar vertebrae?
What direction do articular facets facets face in lumbar vertebra?
- superior articular facets face medially
- inferior articular facets face laterally
What is the spinous process like for lumbar vertebrae?
- short and sturdy
What are vertebrae held together by? (3)
- facet joints
- intervertebral discs
What are facets joints also known as and what do they connect?
- zygapophyseal joints
- connect superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae
Where are intervertebral discs found?
- all non-fused vertebrae
What do intervertebral discs do?
- provide flexibility to the spine
- acts as shock absorbers
What do ligaments do?
- bind the vertebrae together to provide stability
What is the intervertebral disc composed of? (2)
- annulus fibrosus
- nucleus pulposus
What is the structure and location of annulus fibrosus?
structure - fibrocartilage ring
location - attached to epiphyseal rim of vertebral body (outer ring)
What is the structure and location of the nucleus pulposus?
structure - gelantinous substance - shock absorber
location - inner ring