Practical 1 - The vertebral column and spinal cord Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Practical 1 - The vertebral column and spinal cord Deck (78)
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1

A typical vertebral column has how many vertebra?

33

2

What does the body of a typical vertebra support and what is it connected to?

Supports - vertebral column

Connected to - intervertebral discs

3

What are the subdivisions of the vertebral arch of a typical vertebra?

1. Pedicle
2. Lamina
3. Paired superior and inferior articular processes which protrude posterior to the vertebral notches
4. Spinous and transverse processes

4

What do the spinous and transverse processes allow?

attachments of muscles and ligaments

5

What region of vertebra is the smallest?

Cervical vertebrae

6

What is a distinctive feature of cervical vertebra?

transverse foramina (foramen transversarium)

7

What are the transverse foramina (foramen transversarium) like in C7?

smaller or absent than the other cervical vertebra

8

What structure passes through the transverse foramina?

vertebral arteries and veins

9

Which cervical vertebral don't follow the typical vertebra structure?

C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis)

10

What are the spinous processes of C3 to C6 vertebrae like?

short and bifid

11

What is the spinous process of C7 like and what is it used as?

very long

used as - bony landmark to count vertebra

12

What is another name for C7?

vertebra prominens

13

What are the features of C1 (atlas)? (3)

1. no spinous process
2. anterior and posterior arches
3. tubercle each on medial surface of the lateral mass for the transverse ligament

14

What are the features of C2 (axis)? (2)

1. 2 large flat surfaces producing the superior articular facets
2. dens/ odontoid process

15

What is the vertebral body of thoracic vertebrae like?

-heart shaped
- has superior and inferior costal demi facets which articulate with the head of the rib

16

What is the spinous process like for thoracic vertebrae?

- long
- extends posteroinferiorly

17

What is the transverse process for thoracic vertebrae like?

- costal facet for articulation with tubercle of rib

18

What direction do the articular facets in thoracic vertebrae face?

- superior articular facets face posteriorly
- inferior articular facets face anteriorly

19

What is the vertebral body like for lumbar vertebrae?

- large

20

What direction do articular facets facets face in lumbar vertebra?

- superior articular facets face medially
- inferior articular facets face laterally

21

What is the spinous process like for lumbar vertebrae?

- short and sturdy

22

What are vertebrae held together by? (3)

- facet joints
- intervertebral discs
-ligaments

23

What are facets joints also known as and what do they connect?

- zygapophyseal joints
- connect superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae

24

Where are intervertebral discs found?

- all non-fused vertebrae

25

What do intervertebral discs do?

- provide flexibility to the spine
- acts as shock absorbers

26

What do ligaments do?

- bind the vertebrae together to provide stability

27

What is the intervertebral disc composed of? (2)

- annulus fibrosus
- nucleus pulposus

28

What is the structure and location of annulus fibrosus?

structure - fibrocartilage ring

location - attached to epiphyseal rim of vertebral body (outer ring)

29

What is the structure and location of the nucleus pulposus?

structure - gelantinous substance - shock absorber

location - inner ring

30

What are the attachments of the anterior longitudinal ligament? (2)

- occipital bone
- C1 to Sacrum