Flashcards in Psychology-Chapter 11: Emotion and Motivation-Important terms Deck (47):
What is an emotion?
An emotion is a motivated state marked by physiological arousal, expressive behaviour and mental experience.
What is the discrete emotions theory?
Theory that humans experience a small number of distinct emotions that are evolutionarily conserved.
What are primary emotions?
Developed by Paul Ekman. Primary emotions are a small number (perhaps seven) of emotions believed by some theorists to be cross-culturally universal.
What are display rules?
Cross-cultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions.
What are cognitive theories of emotion?
Theories proposing that emotions are products of thinking.
What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?
Theory proposing that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli. (We run away from the bear thus, we were scared)
What is the somatic marker theory?
Theory proposing that we use our "gut instincts' to help us determine how we should act.
What is the Cannon-Bard theory?
Theory proposing that an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions.
What is the two-factor theory?
Theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal, followed by a labeling of that arousal to an emotion.
What is the facial feedback hypothesis?
Theory that blood vessels in the face feed back temperature information in the brain, altering our experience of emotion.
What is non-verbal leakage?
Unconscious spillover of emotions into non-verbal behaviour.
What are proxemics?
Study of personal space.
What is the Pinocchio response?
Supposedly perfect physiological or behavioural indicator of lying.
What is the GKT?
Guilty knowledge test-alternative to the polygraph test that relies on the premise that criminals harbour concealed knowledge about the crime that innocent people don't.
What is an integrity test?
Questionaire that presumably assesses worker's tendency to steal or cheat.
What is positive psychology?
Discpline that has sought to emphasize human strengths.
What is defensive pessimism?
Strategy of anticipating failure and compensating for this expectation by mentally over-preparing for negative outcomes.
What is the broaden and build theory?
Theory proposing that happiness predisposes us to think more openly.
What is the positivity effect?
Tendency for people to remember more positive than negative information as they age. (May have to do with diminished activity of the amygdala, which plays a key role in the processing of negative emotion)
What is affective forecasting?
Ability to predict our own and other's happiness. We are typically poor at this.
What is the durability bias?
Belief that both our good and bad moods will last longer than they actually do.
What is flow?
A mental state in which we're completely immersed in what we're doing. We tend to be especially happy when in the midst of a flow.
What is the hedonic treadmill?
Tendency for our moods to adapt to external circumstances. Our levels of happiness adjust quickly to life situations.
What is self-esteem?
Evaluation of our self-worth.
What are positive illusions?
Tendencies to perceive ourselves more favourably than others do.
What is motivation?
Psychological drives that propel us in a specific direction.
What is drive reduction theory?
Theory proposing that certain drives, like hunger, thirst, and sexual frustration, motivate us to act in ways that minimize these aversive states.
What is homeostasis?
Equilibrium. Ability of the body to regulate it's internal environment.
What is the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
Parabola shaped relation. X-axis = Arousal level, Y-axis = Performance. Complex task shift to the left.
What are incentive theories?
Theories proposing that we're often motivated by positive goals.
What is the hierarchy of needs?
Model, developed by Abraham Maslow, proposing that we must satisfy physiological needs and needs for safety and security before progressing to more complex needs.
What is glucostatic theory?
Theory that when our blood glucose levels drop, hunger creates a drive to eat to restore the proper level of glucose.
What is leptin?
Hormone that signals the hypothalamus and brain stem to reduce appetite and increase the amount of energy used. Obese people are resistant to the effects of leptin.
What is a set point?
Value that establishes a range of body and muscle mass we tend to maintain.
What is the internal-external theory?
Theory holding that obese people are motivated to eat more by external cues (such as seeing people sample food) than by internal cues.
What is bulimia nervosa?
Eating disorder characterized by the binge-purge cycle in an effort to lose or maintain weight.
What is anorexia nervosa?
Eating disorder associated with excessive weight loss and the irrational perception that one is overweight.
What are the four phases of human sexual response?
Excitement phase, plateau phase, orgasm (climax) phase and resolution phase.
What is the excitement phase?
Phase in human sexual response in which people experience sexual pleasure and notice physiological changes associated with it (like getting a boner).
What is the plateau phase?
Phase in human sexual response in which sexual tension builds.
What is the orgasm (climax) phase?
Phase in the human sexual response marked by involuntary rhythmic contractions in the muscles of genitals in both women and men.
What is the resolution phase?
Phase in human sexual response following orgasm, in which people report relaxation and a sense of well-being.
What is proximity?
Physical nearness, a predictor of attraction.
What is similarity?
Extent to which we have things in common with others, a predictor of attraction.
What is reciprocity?
Rule of give and take, a predictor of attraction.
What is passionate love?
Love marked by powerful, even overwhelming, longing for one's partner.