Flashcards in Psychology: Chapter 7-Memory-Important definitions Deck (52)
What is memory?
The retention of information over time.
What is a memory illusion?
False but subjectively compelling memory. In better terms, this is a false memory that we earnestly believe to be true.
What is sensory memory?
Brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short-term memory. It is the ability to retain sensory information after the stimuli is gone.
What is iconic memory?
Visual sensory memory.
What is echoic memory?
Auditory sensory memory
What is short term memory?
Memory system that retains information for a short duration of time.
What is decay?
Fading away of information from memory over time.
What is interference?
Loss of information from memory because of competition from additional information.
What is retroactive interference?
Interference with retention of old information due to actively bringing in new information.
What is proactive interference?
Interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of information. (Think of a PRO tennis player (who is also active) trying to learn squash, it isn't the same and the tennis aspect, interferes with learning the new squash technique)
What is the "Magic Number"?
The span of short term memory according to George Miller. 7 + or - 2 pieces of information.
What is chunking?
Organizing information into meaningful groupings, allowing us to extend the span (range) of STM.
ex: KACFJNABISBCFUI vs. NHLPEICBCNBAMLA
The second presents groupings of meaningful acronyms that make it easier to remember and thus increase the span (range) of information that can be held.
What is rehearsal?
Repeating information to extend the duration of retention in STM and promote the likelihood of consolidation (transfer into LTM stores).
What is maintenance rehearsal?
Constantly repeating information to maintain it in memory until it is no longer useful. (Repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in STM)
ex: repeating a phone number so you don't forget it, until you call the preson
What is elaborative rehearsal?
Linking stimuli in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in STM
What are levels of processing?
Depth of transforming information. The more deeply we process something, the more likely we are to remember it.
What is long term memory?
Relatively enduring retention of information stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills.
What is permastore?
Type of LTM that appears to be permanent.
What is the primacy effect?
Tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well.
What is the recency effect?
Tendency to remember words at the ends of lists recently well.
What is the von Restorff effect?
Tendency to remember stimuli that are odd or stick out from other stimuli. (Ex: out of the whole sentence that you are about the read you probably DEATH will remember one most of all.)
What is the serial position curve?
Recollection ability of participants are plotted. Percent correct against position in list. The Primacy effect, recency effect and von Restorff effect are all shown.
What is semantic memory?
Our knowledge of facts about the world.
What is episodic memory?
Recollection of events of our lives.
What is explicit memory?
Memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness.
What is implicit memory?
Memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously.
What is procedural memory?
Memory for how to do a task, including motor skills and habit.
What is priming?
Our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we've encountered similar stimuli.
(ex: You are shown the word queen, then asked to complete this K_ _ _. Due to priming, you pick king.
What is encoding?
Process of getting information into our memory banks.
What is a mnemonic?
A learning aid, strategy, or device that enhances recall.
What is storage?
Process of keeping information in memory
What are schemas?
Mental model or script that we've stored in memory for how certain things work.
What is retrieval?
Reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores.
What are retrieval cues?
Hints that make it easier to recall information.
What is recall?
Generating previously remembered information.
What is recognition?
Selecting previously remembered information from an array of options.
What is relearning?
Reacquiring knowledge that has been previously learned but forgotten over time.
What is the difference between mass practice and distribute practice?
Mass practice is like cramming. It is studying large amounts of information over a brief time.
Distributed practice is studying small amounts of information over a large period of time.
What is the TOT phenomemon?
Tip of the tongue. Experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access the information.
What is encoding specificity?
Phenomenon in which we remember something better when exposed to the same conditions in which we encoded the information.
What is context dependent learning?
Memory recall is best when the retrieval context matches the encoding context.
What is state-dependent learning?
Superior retrieval of information when the organism is in the same physiological or psychological state as it was during encoding.
What is LTP?
Gradual strengthening of synaptic contacts that are frequently stimulated over time.
What is retrograde amnesia?
Loss of memories from our past.
What is anterograde amnesia?
Inability to encode new memories from our experiences.
What is meta-memory?
Knowledge about our own memory abilities and limitations. (ex: kids (including Gen) think they can remember every word in a list whilst more mature individuals such as Daniel are more cognizant of their memory capabilities)
What is infantile amnesia?
Inability of adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age.
What is a flashbulb memory?
Emotional memory that is extraordinarily vivid and detail.
(Think of Jonah Hill, its an emotional memory with "vivid and descriptive detail")
What is source monitoring confusion?
Lack of clarity about the source of a memory.
(a distinct memory that we can't be sure if it came from a dream or not, i.e. we aren't sure of the source)
What is cryptomnesia?
Failure to recognize that our ideas originated with someone else. (Basically stealing people's work, thinking it was our own.)
What are suggestive memory techniques?
Procedure that encourages patients to recall memories that may or may not have occurred.