Flashcards in Psychology: Chapter 7-Memory-Important definitions Deck (52)
What is memory?
The retention of information over time.
What is a memory illusion?
False but subjectively compelling memory. In better terms, this is a false memory that we earnestly believe to be true.
What is sensory memory?
Brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to short-term memory. It is the ability to retain sensory information after the stimuli is gone.
What is iconic memory?
Visual sensory memory.
What is echoic memory?
Auditory sensory memory
What is short term memory?
Memory system that retains information for a short duration of time.
What is decay?
Fading away of information from memory over time.
What is interference?
Loss of information from memory because of competition from additional information.
What is retroactive interference?
Interference with retention of old information due to actively bringing in new information.
What is proactive interference?
Interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of information. (Think of a PRO tennis player (who is also active) trying to learn squash, it isn't the same and the tennis aspect, interferes with learning the new squash technique)
What is the "Magic Number"?
The span of short term memory according to George Miller. 7 + or - 2 pieces of information.
What is chunking?
Organizing information into meaningful groupings, allowing us to extend the span (range) of STM.
ex: KACFJNABISBCFUI vs. NHLPEICBCNBAMLA
The second presents groupings of meaningful acronyms that make it easier to remember and thus increase the span (range) of information that can be held.
What is rehearsal?
Repeating information to extend the duration of retention in STM and promote the likelihood of consolidation (transfer into LTM stores).
What is maintenance rehearsal?
Constantly repeating information to maintain it in memory until it is no longer useful. (Repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in STM)
ex: repeating a phone number so you don't forget it, until you call the preson
What is elaborative rehearsal?
Linking stimuli in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in STM
What are levels of processing?
Depth of transforming information. The more deeply we process something, the more likely we are to remember it.
What is long term memory?
Relatively enduring retention of information stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills.
What is permastore?
Type of LTM that appears to be permanent.
What is the primacy effect?
Tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well.
What is the recency effect?
Tendency to remember words at the ends of lists recently well.
What is the von Restorff effect?
Tendency to remember stimuli that are odd or stick out from other stimuli. (Ex: out of the whole sentence that you are about the read you probably DEATH will remember one most of all.)
What is the serial position curve?
Recollection ability of participants are plotted. Percent correct against position in list. The Primacy effect, recency effect and von Restorff effect are all shown.
What is semantic memory?
Our knowledge of facts about the world.
What is episodic memory?
Recollection of events of our lives.
What is explicit memory?
Memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness.
What is implicit memory?
Memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously.
What is procedural memory?
Memory for how to do a task, including motor skills and habit.
What is priming?
Our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we've encountered similar stimuli.
(ex: You are shown the word queen, then asked to complete this K_ _ _. Due to priming, you pick king.
What is encoding?
Process of getting information into our memory banks.