Flashcards in T1- Hormone Reg Deck (57)
How do mineralocorticoid hormones affect ion transport by epithelial cells?
- they increase the activity of the sodium pump of the epithelial cells
- cause sodium retention and potassium and hydrogen loss
The most potent naturally occurring mineralocorticoid is ____.
What is aldosterone regulated by?
the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
What cells in the adrenal medulla secrete catecholamines (epi and norepi)?
T/f Catecholamines promote hyperglycemia.
You need that suga to run away
Endocrine system reacts with the nervous system to respond to ___
The stress response involves the ___ system
Neuroendocrine response to stress is influenced by what hormone from the hypothalamus?
CRH - Corticotropin-releasing hormone
Name the 3 tests of the endocrine function.
T/f As the thyroid gland ages, it becomes glandular atrophy, fibrosis, nodularity and increased inflammatory infiltrates
What are the alterations in calcium balance the parathyroid gland undergoes?
Inadeaquate intake, malabsorption or renal changes
As we age, we decreased the clearance of what hormone from the adrenal glands?
(When we are old and in retirement we won't have any stress hormone!)
What gland contains two lobes lateral to the trachea?
What is the small band of tissue that joins the two lobes of the thyroid gland?
The thyroid gland is composed of FOLLICLES. THe follicles are composed of follicular cells that surround a viscous substance called _______.
What do the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete?
calcitonin and somatostatin
What is another name for calcitonin?
What is the action of calcitonin?
thyrocalcitonin, acts to lower serum calcium levels by inhibition of bone resorbing osteoclasts
What are the main two hormones involved in thyroid hormone secretion regulation?
thyrotropin releasing hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone
What are the two hormones secreted by the thyroid gland?
90% T4 and 10% T3
What 3 carrier proteins does T3 and T4 bind to in the circulation?
1. thyroxine -binding globulin
2. thyroxine - binding prealbumin
How does thyroid hormone effect cell metabolism?
altering protein, fat, and glucose metabolism, and as a result, heat production and oxygen consumption are increased.
What are the small glands located behind the upper and lower poles of the thyroid gland?
What are the actions of parathyroid hormones?
Regulator of serum calcium
Antagonist of calcitonin
Is the pancreas and endocrine or exocrine gland?
endocrine = producing insulin and glucagon
exocrine = producing digestive enzyme
Endocrine Houses what cells involved in the regulation of serum glucose?
name each cell and what they secrete
Islets of langerhan cells
alpha = glucagon secretion
beta = insulin secretion
delta = somatostatin and gastrin
F cells = pancreatic polypeptide
Insulin is secreted by the beta cells, and regulated by chemical, hormonal, and neural mechanisms.
-Does an increase or decrease in blood glucose level stimulate insulin production?