T1- Hormone Reg Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in T1- Hormone Reg Deck (57)
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30

How do mineralocorticoid hormones affect ion transport by epithelial cells?

- they increase the activity of the sodium pump of the epithelial cells
- cause sodium retention and potassium and hydrogen loss

31

The most potent naturally occurring mineralocorticoid is ____.

aldosterone

33

What is aldosterone regulated by?

the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

34

What cells in the adrenal medulla secrete catecholamines (epi and norepi)?

Chromaffin cells

35

T/f Catecholamines promote hyperglycemia.

T

You need that suga to run away

36

Endocrine system reacts with the nervous system to respond to ___

stressors

37

The stress response involves the ___ system

immune

38

Neuroendocrine response to stress is influenced by what hormone from the hypothalamus?

CRH - Corticotropin-releasing hormone

39

Name the 3 tests of the endocrine function.

Radioimmunoassay
ELISA
Bioassay

40

T/f As the thyroid gland ages, it becomes glandular atrophy, fibrosis, nodularity and increased inflammatory infiltrates

True

41

What are the alterations in calcium balance the parathyroid gland undergoes?

Inadeaquate intake, malabsorption or renal changes

42

As we age, we decreased the clearance of what hormone from the adrenal glands?

cortisol

(When we are old and in retirement we won't have any stress hormone!)

43

What gland contains two lobes lateral to the trachea?

thyroid gland

44

What is the small band of tissue that joins the two lobes of the thyroid gland?

isthmus

45

The thyroid gland is composed of FOLLICLES. THe follicles are composed of follicular cells that surround a viscous substance called _______.

colloid

46

What do the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete?

calcitonin and somatostatin

47

What is another name for calcitonin?
What is the action of calcitonin?

thyrocalcitonin, acts to lower serum calcium levels by inhibition of bone resorbing osteoclasts

48

What are the main two hormones involved in thyroid hormone secretion regulation?

thyrotropin releasing hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone

49

What are the two hormones secreted by the thyroid gland?

90% T4 and 10% T3

50

What 3 carrier proteins does T3 and T4 bind to in the circulation?

1. thyroxine -binding globulin
2. thyroxine - binding prealbumin
3. albumin

51

How does thyroid hormone effect cell metabolism?

altering protein, fat, and glucose metabolism, and as a result, heat production and oxygen consumption are increased.

52

What are the small glands located behind the upper and lower poles of the thyroid gland?

Parathyroid glands

53

What are the actions of parathyroid hormones?

Regulator of serum calcium
Antagonist of calcitonin

54

Is the pancreas and endocrine or exocrine gland?

BOTH!
endocrine = producing insulin and glucagon
exocrine = producing digestive enzyme

55

Endocrine Houses what cells involved in the regulation of serum glucose?
name each cell and what they secrete

Islets of langerhan cells
alpha = glucagon secretion
beta = insulin secretion
delta = somatostatin and gastrin
F cells = pancreatic polypeptide

56

Insulin is secreted by the beta cells, and regulated by chemical, hormonal, and neural mechanisms.
-Does an increase or decrease in blood glucose level stimulate insulin production?

increase

57

Insulin facilitates the rate of glucose uptake into body's cells. What is the key component in maintaining this normal cellular function?

sensitivity of the insulin receptor
--insulin resistance can be caused by decreased sensitivity to the receptor