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Flashcards in Text Chapter 5: Biotechnology Deck (34):
1

Restriction Enzyme

chop up DNA from donor species that exhibits a trait of interest

2

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

amplifies small samples of DNA into more useful quantities

3

Ligation to Produce Recombinant DNA

insert pieces of DNA into bacterial cells or viruses

4

Ligation to Produce Recombinant DNA

insert pieces of DNA into bacterial sells or viruses

5

Transformation to Produce DNA Library

grow separate colonies of bacteria or viruses, each containing some donor DNA

6

Screening a DNA Library

identify colonies of bacteria or viruses that have DNA for a trait of interest

7

Biotechnology

use of living things to provide needed products or processes

8

DNA Library

the group of plasmids that contain all the genes from a single organism

9

DNA Ligase

an enzyme that ‘glues’ DNA, (produces recombinant DNA)

10

"Knockout" Organism

take out a gene from an organism whose function you want to study

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Ligation

‘gluing’ genes together

12

Primer

starting point for DNA polymerase to make new DNA

13

Plasmid

extrachromosomal, independently replicating, small circular DNA molecule

14

PCR

uses repeated cycles of heating to denature DNA and cooling to synthesize new DNA, uses Taq polymerase (withstands heat) and primers to begin synthesis

15

Probe

sequence of DNA that is complementary to the gene of interest, used to locate a copy of the gene by hybridization

16

Recombinant DNA

DNA produced by joining segments of DNA from different sources

17

Recombinant DNA

DNA produced by joining segments of DNA from different sources

18

Restriction Enzyme

enzymes that cleave the DNA double helix at specific nucleotide sequences

19

RFLP Analysis

use of a probe to identify specific DNA fragments derived from specific enzyme digestion, shows variation in sizes of fragments between different individuals

20

Short Tandem Repeat

repeated regions of DNA found in highly variable portions of human chromosomes

21

Sticky End

single stranded end to pair single stranded end with opposite type

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Taq Polymerase

DNA polymerase that withstands high heat

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Transformation

introducing recombinant DNA into bacterial cells

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Transgenic Organism

an organism with a gene from another species in all of its cells

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Vector

carrier of DNA, can be virus or plasmids

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Advantages of PCR

amplifies small amounts of DNA, STR's allow you to distinguish between people

27

Advantages of RFLP Analysis

shows variations in sizes of fragments between different individuals, (disadvantage: need more DNA)

28

Agricultural Applications of Biotechnology in Animals

animals provide models for human diseases, can produce pharmaceuticals and release them in mild

29

Agricultural Applications of Biotechnology in Plants

transgenic plants can resist herbicides and pests and have improved storage qualities and enhanced nutrition

30

Describe how DNA results are used to determine whether a man is the father of a specific child

STR's match half the loci of the child

31

Distinguish between potential crime suspects using DNA fingerprinting by RLFP analysis

The number of repeats within an STR region (indicating an individual’s genotype) is determined by comparing the length of the fragments containing that STR’s region to DNA fragments of known lengths

32

Medical Applications of Biotechnology- Theraputics

factor VII, HGH, insulin, interferon, vaccine, treats many previously untreatable illnesses

33

Medical Applications of Biotechnology- Gene Testing

can identify if an individual has or carries a genetic condition, useful information before having children

34

Medical Applications of Biotechnology- Gene Therapy

when an individual receives a gene they are missing, can be life-saving