Text Chapter 15: Ecology- Communities Flashcards Preview

Biology 3 > Text Chapter 15: Ecology- Communities > Flashcards

Flashcards in Text Chapter 15: Ecology- Communities Deck (20):
1

How interactions between populations can affect the size and composition of the community

predator-prey population cycles follow the same pattern

2

Three Major Types of Interactions in Communities

competition, predation, symbiosis

3

Keystone Species

a plant or animal that helps maintain the diversity and size of other populations

4

Competitive Exclusion

two species competing for the same resource cannot coexist at constant population values, if other ecological factors remain constant

5

Resource Partitioning

when species divide a niche to avoid competition for resources

6

Effects of Predation on a Community

eliminates old and weak individuals, regulates numbers of both predators and prey, coevolution of predators and prey, regulates diversity of populations in community

7

Succession

predictable sequence of changes in a vegetation type over time after a disturbance

8

Situations Where Succession is not Completed

Mount St. Helens eruption

9

Affects of Human Activity on Succession

humans disrupt succession by clearing land, destroying habitats, etc.

10

Ecological Niche

total way of life of all members of a species- habitat, physiological needs including temperature, moisture, and nutrients, behavior, interactions with other species

11

Fundamental Niche

full range of environmental conditions under which species can live

12

Realized Niche

reduced niche due to competition

13

Symbiosis

interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association

14

Commensalism

one helped, other neither helped nor harmed

15

Mutualism

both helped

16

Parisitism

one helped, other harmed

17

Primary Succession

occurs in barren environment with no pre-existing ecosystem

18

Secondary Succession

new community develops after disturbance of existing ecosystem

19

Pioneer Species

tolerate environmental extremes, r-selected species predominate- (high reproductive rates, plants with seeds that spread easily), poor competitors in established communities

20

Climax Community

stable community at endpoint of succession, suited to specific environmental conditions, k-selected species predominant