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Major Categories of Classification

ingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species


The Two Categories used in Binomial Nomenclature

capitalized genus, followed by a lower-case specific name


Characteristics used to Classify Animals

body symmetry, coelome,


Properties common to animals that distinguish them form organisms in other kingdoms

eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic, most are capable of sexual reproduction, lack a cel wall, motile during some stage of their life, respond to external stimuli as a result of nerve and/or muscle action


Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

asymmetrical, loosely structured collection of cells, cell specialization, lack tissues, non-motile as adults, filter feeders


Phylum Cnidaria (Coral, Hydra, Anemones, Jellyfish)

radial symmetry, cells organized into two tissue layers, lack true organs, nerve network and contractile tissue, mouth and anus are same opening, asexual and sexual reproduction, body plans- polyp is attached, medusa is free-floating


Phylum Platyhelminthes (Tapeworms, Flukes, Flatworms)

bilateral symmetry, acoelomate, three tissue layers, excretory and reproductive organs, move my use of nerve cells- ganglia, many are free-living, some are parasitic


Phylum Nematoda (Roundworms)

bilateral symmetry, pseudocoelomate, three tissue layers, tubular gastrovascular cavity- two openings, ‘ganglionic brain,’ gas exchange by diffusion, a few species are parasitic


Phylum Annelida (Segmented Worms)

bilateral symmetry, coelomate, fluid-filled cavity allows movement, three tissue layers, segmented body, closed circulatory system- 5 pairs of hearts, excretory organs- nephridia, digestive system with specialized areas, segmented muscles for movement


Phylum Mollusca

bilateral symmetry, coelomate, three tissue layers, soft body in a calcium-containing shell, 3-chambered heart, blood vessels, ciliated digestive tract, excretory organs- nephridia, head-foot has sensory and motor organs, gills for oxygen absorption, tooth-bearing strap- radula


Phylum Arthropoda

bilateral symmetry, coelomate, three tissue layers, distinct body regions- head, thorax, abdomen, “joint-footed,” exoskeleton- moved at joints by muscles, open circulatory system, complex nervous system- compound eye, efficient gas exchange system


Phylum Echinodermata

radial symmetry, 5-part body plan, coelomate, deuterostome, three tissue layers, “spiny skin,” modified coelom forms a water-vascular system to move tube feet, nervous system- central nerve ring with branches


Phylum Chordata

bilateral symmetry, coelomate, deuterostome, three tissue layers, four common features- notochord, dorsal, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, post-anal tail


*Sub-Phylum Vertebrata

notochord replaced by vertebral column, endoskeleton, development of brain, closed circulatory system- heart with two or more chambers, use of gills, skin, or lungs to obtain oxygen, waste removal by kidneys, separate sexes- internal or external fertilization


Phylum Porifera



Phylum Cnidaria

coral, hydra, anemones, jellyfish


Phylum Platyhelminthes

tapeworms, flukes, flatworms


Phylum Nematoda



Phylum Annelida

segmented worms


Phylum Mollusca

clams, muscles, oysters, scallops, snails, slugs, squid, octopus


Phylum Arthropoda

spiders, tics, scorpions, crabs, lobsters, shrimp, insects, millipedes, centipedes, horseshoe crabs


Phylum Echinodermata

sea stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers, brittle stars


Phylum Chordata

jawless fish, cartilaginous fish, bony fish, frogs, toads, salamanders, birds, lizards, snakes, turtles, alligators, platypus, kangaroo, bat, rabbit, dog, cattle, whale, human