Text Chapter 2: Macromolecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapter 2: Macromolecules Deck (22):
1

Molecule

two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds

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Organic Molecule

molecules that are built around chains of carbon atoms

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Macromolecule

large polymer made of repeating monomer units

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Macromolecules that Provide Energy

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

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Carbohydrates

energy source, structural component, cell-cell communication

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Lipids

concentrated energy source, structural components of cell membranes (phospholipids, cholesterol), communication (steroid hormones), protection from water (waxes)

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Proteins

structural component of cells, control of metabolic reactions- enzymes, growth and repair, communication (protein hormones, cell receptors), energy source

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Dehydration Synthesis

removal of water to add monomer units

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Hydrolysis

addition of OH and H groups of water to break a bond between monomers

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Saturated Fatty Acids

two hydrogen per internal carbon

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Monounsaturated Fatty Acids

one double bond

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Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

more than one double bond

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Primary Structure of a Protein

sequence of amino acids in a chain

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Secondary Structure of a Protein

folded structure due to hydrogen bonds between the amino and acid groups of amino acids

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Tertiary Structure of a Protein

three dimensional folded structure due to attractions and repulsions between R groups

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Quaternary Structure of a Protein

association of two or more protein chains

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Structure of Carbohydrates

Simple: Monosaccharides- one sugar unit (glucose),
Disaccharides- two sugar units (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
Complex: Polysaccharides- many sugar units (starch-storage in plants, glycogen- storage in animals, cellulose- plant cell walls, indigestible, chitin, exoskeleton of insects, fungal cell walls)

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Structure of Lipids

fatty acids
Triglyceride- predominant form in diet (one molecule of glycerol, three fatty acids)
Phospholipid- component of cell membrane
Steroids- linked carbon rings, natural body components (hormones, cholesterol)

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Structure of Proteins

Primary Structure- chain of amino acids (amino acids have common features)
- amino group, “alpha” carbon, carboxylic acid group, “R” group differs for each amino acid
Phenylalanine Structure- phenylalanine “R” group
Leucine Structure- leucine “R” group
Structure Forming the Protein Chain- dehydration synthesis between COOH and NH2
- phenylalanine-leucine dipeptide (peptide bond)

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Monosaccharide

glucose

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Disaccharide

lactose, maltose

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Polysaccharide

starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin