Text Chapter 14: Ecology- Populations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapter 14: Ecology- Populations Deck (19):
1

Population

individuals of one special that occupy a given environment

2

Community

all populations in a common environment

3

Ecosystem

organisms in a community plus nonliving factors

4

Biosphere

zones of air, land, and water at earth’s surface occupied by living things

5

Density-Dependent Factors

related to the number of individuals per given area- reduced food supply due to competition, decreased habitat for living and breeding, increased risk of parasitism and disease, increased risk of predation

6

Density-Independent Factors

weather and natural disasters, human activities- habitat destruction, pollution

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Exponential Growth

J-curve, continuously accelerating, increase in population size when growth has few, if any limits, affected by start of reproduction, part of a boom-and-bust cycle

8

Logistic Growth

S-curve, population stabilizes at carrying capacity

9

Boon-and-Bust Cycles

exponential growth when conditions are good (boom), population rapidly declines when conditions are bad (bust)

10

Predator-Prey Population Cycles

predator and prey follow the same cycle

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Early Loss

greatest mortality in early life, many offspring produced

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Constant Loss

constant mortality regardless of age

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Late Loss

greatest survival in early and middle-life, rapid decline in survival in later life

14

R-Selected

related to growth rate, weeds and insects, exponential growth, many offspring, small offspring, rapid maturation, little to no parental care, reproduce once per lifetime

15

K-Selected

related to carrying capacity, mammals, logistic curve, few offspring, large offspring, slow maturation, extensive parental care, reproduce multiple times

16

Factors that Influence Population Growth

growth rate = r x N where r = birth rate - death rate and N = number of individuals in the population at the current time

17

Carrying Capacity

maximum population size indefinitely supported by available resources,
determined by sustained availability of renewable resources such as nutrients, water, and light, and space, influenced by both density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors

18

Growth Curve of Developing Countries

pyramid shape- expanding

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Growth Curve of Developed Countries

stable