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Flashcards in Text Chapter 1 Deck (15):
1

Steps of the Scientific Method

Make observations
Formulate a hypothesis
Devise a testable prediction
Conduct a critical experiment
Draw conclusions and make revisions

2

Hypothesis

proposed explanation for observed phenomenon or question that can be tested

3

Observation

objective notation of a phenomenon

4

Prediction

a situation that will have one outcome if the hypothesis is true but will give a different outcome if the hypothesis is not true

5

Variable

characteristics of an experimental system that are subject to change

6

Control Group

a group of individuals who are treated identically to the experimental group with one exception: they are not exposed to the treatment

7

Experimental Group

a group of individuals who are exposed to a particular treatment

8

Independent Variable

can be measured at the start of the process, experimenter can select the values

9

Dependent Variable

created by the process being observed, may show a relationship to the independent variable

10

Null Hypothesis

no relationship exists between the two factors being tested

11

Alternative Hypothesis

a specific relationship exists between the factors being tested

12

Blind Experiment

The experimental subjects do not know which treatment, (if any) they are receiving, minimizes the placebo effect

13

Double-blind Experiment

neither the experimental subjects nor the experimenter know which treatment the subject is receiving, reduces bias on the part of the experimenter

14

Theory

supported by such a wide body of evidence that it is scientifically accepted as a factual
framework.

15

Principle

a theory supported over a long period of time with a variety of experimental approaches