Text Chapters 2 and 4: Chemical Reactions in Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapters 2 and 4: Chemical Reactions in Cells Deck (27):
1

Energy

the capacity to do work

2

First Law of Thermodynamics

in a closed system, energy is neither created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form to another

3

Second Law of Thermodynamics

energy conversions result in a loss of useful energy (increase in entropy= randomness)

4

Chemical Reaction

involves the breaking and formations of chemical bonds

5

Endergonic Reactions

energy is consumed- (products are GREATER than reactants (ex. photosynthesis)

6

Exergonic Reactions

energy is released- products are LESS than reactants (ex. burning glucose)

7

ATP for Short-term Energy Storage

energy is stored in the bonds of ATP- when energy is released, ATP loses a phosphate, is broken down into ADP

8

Use of Electron Carriers for Donation to Chemical Reactions in the Cell

electron carriers donate electrons to the electron transport chain to produce ATP

9

Coupled Reactions

energy released from an exergonic reaction is used to power an endergonic reaction

10

Activation Energy

the least amount of energy required to activate atoms or molecules to a state in which they can undergo a chemical reaction.

11

Active Site

region on enzyme where reactants bind

12

Catalyst

speeds up a reaction without being changed by the reaction

13

Enzyme

a biological catalyst specific for the reactants (substrates) in the reactions they catalyze
-speed up biological catalysts by lowering the activation energy for the reaction

14

Substrate

the molecule acted upon by an enzyme

15

Product

a substance that is formed as a result of a chemical reaction

16

Protein Enzymes (influence)

speed up reactions without changing (catalysts)

17

Affect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity

colder temperature, less molecular motion, fewer collisions between enzymes and substrate. Enzymes unfold with heat.

18

Affect of pH on Enzyme Activity

enzymes unfold if too low or too high from optimal pH

19

Affect of Activators on Enzyme Activity

speed reaction rate

20

Affect of Inhibitors on Enzyme Activity

lower reaction rate

21

Feedback Inhibition

end product inhibits first enzyme

22

Competitive Inhibitors

bind to the active site and prevent the substrate from binding

23

Non-competitive Inhibitors

bind somewhere else on the enzyme, change the shape of active site, prevent substrate from binding

24

Affect of Enzyme Concentration on Enzyme Activity

raises the rate of enzyme activity until it cannot be raised anymore

25

Affect of Substrate Concentration on Enzyme Activity

raises the rate of enzyme activity until it cannot be raised anymore

26

Reaction that Requires Energy

endergonic reaction

27

Biological

composed of protein