Text Chapters 6 and 25: Cellular Reproduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapters 6 and 25: Cellular Reproduction Deck (69)
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1

Interphase

chromatin is diffuse, individual chromosomes cannot be distinguished

2

Mitosis

nuclear division retaining the original chromosome number

3

Meiosis

nuclear division reducing the chromosome number, leading to sperm or eggs

4

Cytokinesis

cytoplasmic division

5

Prophase

chromosomes condense, spindle forms, nucleolus disappears, nuclear envelope breaks down, each chromosome appears as a pair of chromatids attached at their centromeres

6

Metaphase

chromatid pairs align at the cell equator

7

Anaphase

sister chromatids separate and are drawn to opposite poles by spindle fibers

8

Telophase

chromosomes have reached poles of a cell, spindle disperses, nuclear envelope surrounds chromosomes, chromosomes becomes diffuse, nucleolus forms

9

Chromosome

a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism

10

Chromatid

one copy of a duplicated chromosome, which is generally joined to the other copy by a single centromere

11

Centromere

the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids

12

Crossing Over

homologous pairs exchange genetic information (chromosomes with combinations of maternal and paternal traits)

13

Spindle

a group of parallel threads stretching across the cell between its two ends (poles), where they connect to each pole at the centriole

14

Homologous Pair

diploids have pairs of chromosomes, each homologous pair is genetically matched so that the genes are arranged in the same order

15

Meiosis I

reduction division, separation of homologous chromosomes into two different nuclei, chromosome number reduced to haploid, crossing over occurs

16

Meiosis II

equational division, duplicated chromosomes separate, no change in chromosome number

17

Three Sources of Genetic Variation Related to Sexual Reproduction

alleles come from two parents, crossing over, reassortment of homologues

18

Cell Type at Start (Mitosis)

diploid

19

Cell Type at End (Mitosis)

diploid

20

Are Products Identical? (Mitosis)

yes

21

Number of Chromosome Duplications Prior to (Mitosis)

one

22

Pairing of Homologues (Mitosis)

no

23

Crossing Over (Mitosis)

no

24

Number of Chromosome Divisions (Mitosis)

one

25

Cell Type at Start (Meiosis)

diploid

26

Cell Type at end (Meiosis)

haploid

27

Are Products Identical? (Meiosis)

no

28

Number of Chromosome Duplications Prior to (Meiosis)

four

29

Pairing of Homologues (Meiosis)

yes

30

Crossing Over (Meiosis)

yes