Text Chapter 3: Cells Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapter 3: Cells Deck (36):
1

Essential Features of a Cell

plasma membrane, genetic material, cytoplasm

2

Plasma Membrane

boundary surrounding the cell

3

Genetic Material

DNA, located in membrane-bound nucleus for eukaryotic cells, nucleoid for prokaryotic cells

4

Cytoplasm

semi-fluid matrix containing enzymes (biological catalyst), ribosomes, and organelles in eukaryotes

5

Bacterial Flagellum

movement

6

Capsule

protects from drying, protects against white blood cells

7

Cell Wall (prokaryotic)

supports the cell, maintains shape

8

Infolded Plasma Membrane (prokaryotic)

metabolism, cell division

9

Nucleoid

cytoplasmic region containing the genetic material, DNA

10

Pilus

surface projection used for transfer of genetic material

11

Plasma Membrane

regulates flow of substances in and out of cell

12

Plasmid

small circular DNA, replicates independently, genes for antibiotic resistance

13

Ribosomes (prokaryotic)

produce proteins

14

Cell Wall (eukaryotic)

controls cell shape, protects, supports, made of carbohydrates

15

Centriole

gives rise to basal bodies that produce cilia or flagella

16

Chloroplast

photosynthesis (uses light energy to produce organic molecules in plants and protists)

17

Cilia

cell movement in protists and animal sperm, move substances across cell surfaces in lungs and fallopian tubes

18

Cytoskeleton

maintains cell shape, allows for cell movement, anchors organelles and proteins, directs transport of materials

19

Flagella

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20

Golgi Complex

collects, modifies, packages, and distributes proteins from RER

21

Lysosome

contains digestive enzymes to digest food in protists or destroy aging organelles

22

Microtubules

movement of materials within cells, cell movement

23

Mitochondrion

produces energy by breaking down organic molecules, found in all eukaryotic cells

24

Nucleolus

site of ribosome assembly (inside nucleus)

25

Nucleus

carrier of genetic material (DNA+ protein=chromatin), governs cell activities, directs cell reproduction
- surrounded by membrane called nuclear envelope
- contains nucleolus- produces ribosomes

26

Peroxisome

removes harmful oxidants from cells

27

Plasma Membrane (eukaryotes)

regulates passage of materials, cell-cell recognition

28

Ribosomes (eukaryotes)

site of protein synthesis, can be free in the cytoplasm or attached to membranes

29

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

produces proteins, prepares proteins for export

30

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)

lipid synthesis, drug detoxification, transport of proteins from RER

31

Vacuole

central vacuole (plants) stores waste and maintains turgidity, contractile vacuole (protists) maintains water balance, food vacuole (protists) fuses with lysosome for digestion

32

Prokaryotic Cells (v. eukaryotic cells)

single circular chromosome
chromosome found in cytoplasmic region called nucleoid
no internal membranes, some infolded plasma membranes

33

Eukaryotic Cells (v. prokaryotic cells)

multiple linear chromosomes
chromosomes found in a membrane-bound nucleus
extensive network of internal membranes, specialized areas called organelles

34

Endosymbiosis

ancestral eukaryotes and prokaryotes come to live in close association, to the benefit of both. Through evolution, the prokaryote became the organelle, such as mitochondrion or chloroplasts, of the larger eukaryotic cell.

35

Invagination

the plasma membrane may have folded in on itself to form specialized membranes within the cell, such as the nucleus.

36

Differences between Plant and Animal Cells

cell wall, central vacuole, chloroplasts, cilia and flagella