FINAL- Cumulative Flashcards Preview

Biology 3 > FINAL- Cumulative > Flashcards

Flashcards in FINAL- Cumulative Deck (92):
1

Hypothesis

proposed explanation for observed phenomenon or question that can be tested

2

Theory

supported by such a wide body of evidence that it is scientifically accepted as a factual
framework.

3

Atom

smallest unit that has characteristic properties of the element

4

Molecule

Two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds

5

Hydrogen Ion

positively charged, acidic

6

Hydroxyl Ion

negatively charged, basi

7

Covalent Bond

atoms share electrons

8

Hydrogen Bond

covalently bound hydrogen is attracted to another atom *weakest

9

Fatty Acids

predominately nonpolar molecules consisting of a long chain of carbons with an oxygen and a hydroxyl group at one end, form the tail region of triglyceride fat molecules

10

Amino Acids

biologically important organic compounds composed of amino and carboxylic acid functional groups, an “alpha” carbon, and a side-chain (R-group) specific to each amino acid

11

Sugars

monomer unit of carbohydrates

12

Nucleotides

composed of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group, serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA and RNA

13

Dehydration Synthesis

removal of water to add monomer units

14

Hydrolysis

addition of OH and H groups of water to break a bond between monomers

15

Mitochindrion

produces energy by breaking down organic molecules, found in all eukaryotic cells

16

Chloroplast

photosynthesis (uses light energy to produce organic molecules in plants and protists)

17

Nucleus

carrier of genetic material (DNA+ protein=chromatin), governs cell activities, directs cell reproduction
- surrounded by membrane called nuclear envelope
- contains nucleolus- produces ribosomes

18

Cytoplasm

semi-fluid matrix containing enzymes (biological catalyst), ribosomes, and organelles in eukaryotes

19

Plasma Membrane

boundary surrounding the cell

20

Cell Wall

controls cell shape, protects, supports, made of carbohydrates

21

Enzyme

a biological catalyst specific for the reactants (substrates) in the reactions they catalyze
-speed up biological catalysts by lowering the activation energy for the reaction

22

Substrate

the molecule acted upon by an enzyme

23

Product

a substance that is formed as a result of a chemical reaction

24

Cellular Respiration

-the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into ATP, and then release waste products

25

Cellular Respiration

starts with glucose and ends with CO2 and water, occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria

26

Photosynthesis

uses light energy to produce organic molecules in plants and protists

27

Phototsynthesis

starts with CO2, ends with glucose, occurs in chloroplast

28

ADP

adenosine diphosphate, energy carrier

29

ATP

adenosine triphosphate, energy carrier

30

Mitosis

nuclear division retaining the original chromosome number

31

Meiosis

nuclear division reducing the chromosome number, leading to sperm or eggs

32

Haploid

one set of chromosomes (n)

33

Diploid

two sets of chromosomes (2n)

34

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, double-stranded

35

RNA

ribonucleic acid, single-stranded

36

Proteins

structural component of cells, control of metabolic reactions- enzymes, growth and repair, communication (protein hormones, cell receptors), energy source

37

DNA Replication

DNA chains separate, each chain is used as a pattern to produce a new chain, each new DNA helix contains one “old” and one “new” chain

38

RNA Transcription

DNA chains separate, one DNA chain is used as a pattern to produce an RNA chain, RNA chain is released and the DNA chains reform the double-helix

39

Protein Translation

at the ribosome, codons in mRNA are recognized by tRNA anticodons to place amino acids in the specific sequence specified by the DNA

40

Codon

a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis

41

Anticodon

region of a transfer RNA is a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon in the messenger RNA

42

Restriction Enzyme

chop up DNA from donor species that exhibits a trait of interest

43

Probe

sequence of DNA that is complementary to the gene of interest, used to locate a copy of the gene by hybridization

44

RFLP Ananlysis

use of a probe to identify specific DNA fragments derived from specific enzyme digestion, shows variation in sizes of fragments between different individuals

45

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

amplifies small samples of DNA into more useful quantities

46

Allele

alternate form of a gene

47

Gene

sequence of DNA that codes for a protein, gives rise to a physical trait

48

Autosomal Inheritance

an inherited trait that affects both males and females equally

49

Sex-Linked Traits

Gender is determined by the sperm- females donate one X chromosome and males donate either an X or a Y chromosome which determines the sex of the child
-Males carry only one copy of genes on the X chromosome but females carry two copies, therefore their sex-linked traits have a greater influence on male children
-Fathers’ traits only affect female children

50

Pleiotropic Effects (Pleiotrophy)

one gene effects many traits

51

Polygenic Inheritance

many genes affect one trait

52

Directional Selection

increases one extreme

53

Stabilizing Selection

eliminates both extremes

54

Disruptive Selection

increases both extremes

55

Coevolution

species adjust together to maintain relationship

56

Convergent Evolution

similar phenotypes arise in unrelated species as a result of environmental similarities

57

Divergent Evolution

different phenotypes arise as related species encounter environmental similarities

58

Microevolution

change within a population or species

59

Macroevolution

change to a new population or species

60

Allopatric Speciation

occurs a result of geographical isolation, one group separates from the population, separate evolutionary pressures cause different genetic changes in both groups, most common mechanism

61

Sympatric Speciation

occurs in the same location, due to ecological isolation or polyploidy

62

Batesian Mimicry

a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a common predator

63

Mullerian Mimicry

two or more poisonous species, that may or may not be closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's warning signals

64

Heterotrophic

an organism that consumes other organisms (autotrophs) because it cannot synthesize food on it’s own

65

Autotrophic

an organism that synthesizes its own food, does not consume other organisms

66

Chemoorganothrophs

use organic compounds for chemical energy and sources of carbon, heterotrophic, largest group of prokaryotes, including disease-causing bacteria

67

Chemolithotrophs

use inorganic compounds for chemical energy, autotrophic, iron-oxidizing bacteria

68

Photoautotrophs

use CO2 and H2O, release O2

69

Photoheterotrophs

use carbon from organic compounds, do not release O2

70

Mycelium

network of filaments

71

Hypha

individual filaments

72

Phylum Arthropoda

bilateral symmetry, coelomate, three tissue layers, distinct body regions- head, thorax, abdomen, “joint-footed,” exoskeleton- moved at joints by muscles, open circulatory system, complex nervous system- compound eye, efficient gas exchange system

73

Phylum Chordata

bilateral symmetry, coelomate, deuterostome, three tissue layers, four common features- notochord, dorsal, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, post-anal tail

74

Sporophyte

produces spores my meiosis

75

Gametophyte

produces spores by mitosis

76

Stamen

produce pollen in anther

77

Pistil (Carpel)

produce ovule in ovary

78

Mosses

non-vascular (no fluid-conducting vascular system), enclosed reproductive structures, require moist environments

79

Angiosperms

vascular plants with flowers and fruit, broad waterproof leaves, greatly reduced gametophyte (pollen grain and embryo sac with egg), many have animal pollinators and seed distributors, some use wind, seed contains diploid embryo, largest number of species (250,000)

80

Pappus

propellor-like structure on a plant for seed dispersal

81

Seed Wing

wing-like structures which aid in dispersal of seeds

82

Left Ventricle

pumps blood to the rest of the body (not the lungs)

83

Right Ventricle

pumps blood only to the lungs

84

Red Blood Cells

carry oxygen

85

White Blood Cells

defend against invaders

86

Platelets

initiate blood clots

87

Macrophages

engulf invaders

88

B Cells

humoral immunity

89

T Cells

cell-mediated immunity

90

Antigen

molecules on the invader that are recognized by the immune system

91

Antibody

protein that recognizes antigens

92

Order of Vertebrae (from neck down)

cervical, thoracic, lumbar