Text Chapter 5: DNA Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Text Chapter 5: DNA Function Deck (37):
1

Components of a Nucleotide

phosphate, sugar, nitrogen-contining base

2

Primary Structure of DNA

chain of nucleotides

3

Primary Structure of RNA

chain of nucleotides

4

Secondary Structure of DNA

double helix

5

Secondary Structure of RNA

single folded chain

6

DNA Replication

DNA chains separate, each chain is used as a pattern to produce a new chain, each new DNA helix contains one “old” and one “new” chain

7

RNA Transcription

DNA chains separate, one DNA chain is used as a pattern to produce an RNA chain, RNA chain is released and the DNA chains reform the double-helix

8

Protein Translation

at the ribosome, codons in mRNA are recognized by tRNA anticodons to place amino acids in the specific sequence specified by the DNA

9

3 Stages of Protein Translation

initiation, elongation, termination

10

3 Stages of Protein Translation

initiation, elongation, termination

11

DNA Polymerase

adds nucleotides to the growing chain in a 5’-> 3’ direction

12

RNA Polymerase

adds nucleotides to the growing chain in a 5’-> 3’ direction

13

Base-Pairing Rules that Govern DNA Replication

Pair A with T and G with C to produce the second chain

14

Base-Pairing Rules that Govern RNA Transcription

same as DNA, but the A from DNA pairs with a U in RNA

15

Base-Pairing Rules that Govern Codon- Anticodon Recognition in Translation

Pair A with U and G with C- no T

16

Base-Pairing Rules that Govern Codon- Anticodon Recognition in Translation

Pair A with U and G with C- no T

17

Function of mRNA in Protein Translation

specifies order of amino acids

18

Function of tRNA in Protein Translation

carries amino acids

19

Function of rRNA in Protein Translation

joins with proteins to form ribosome

20

Function of rRNA in Protein Translation

joins with proteins to form ribosome

21

Initiation

assemble components to start process

22

Elongation

add amino acids in repeated cycles

23

Termination

release protein product

24

Nature of the Genetic Code

triplet, no spaces

25

Given a DNA Sequence in one Strand, Determine a DNA Sequence in a Complementary strand

A pairs with T, C pairs with G

26

Give a DNA Sequence in one Strand, Determine mRNA Sequence Transcribed From the DNA Strand

5’—> 3’, A pairs with T, C pairs with U

27

Given a DNA Sequence in one Strand, Determine the Sequence of Anticodons Recognizing mRNA Codons

turn the mRNA chain to read 3’—>5’, build the tRNA anticodons (A pairs with T, C pairs with U)

28

Given a DNA Sequence in one Strand, Determine the Protein Sequence Derived from mRNA

read the codons from 5’—>3’ to get the amino acid names (from codon chart)

29

Given an mRNA Strand, Determine the DNA Sequence used as the Template for mRNA

from 5’—> 3’ match A with T and G with C

30

Given an mRNA Strand, Determine the DNA Sequence used as the Template for mRNA

from 5’—> 3’ match A with T and G with C

31

Given an mRNA Strand, Determine the DNA Sequence in the Non-Template Strand

change U to T, read 3’—> 5’

32

Given an mRNA Strand, Determine the Sequence of Anticodons Recognizing mRNA Codons

read 3’—> 5’

33

Given an mRNA Strand, Determine the Protein Sequence Derived from mRNA

codons on the 5’—> 3’

34

If Given a Protein Sequence, Determine the Sequence of Codons in mRNA

sequence of codons on 5’—> 3’ side

35

If Given a Protein Sequence, Determine the Sequence of Anticodons Recognizing mRNA Codons

3’—-> 5’ side

36

If Given a Protein Sequence, Determine the DNA Sequence used as the Template for mRNA

T becomes U on the mRNA strand

37

If Given a Protein Sequence, Determine the DNA Sequence in the Non-Template Strand

T becomes U on the mRNA strand