Unit 3: Basal Ganglia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3: Basal Ganglia Deck (32):
1

L1: Basal ganglia lesions result in ___-lateral deficits.

Contralateral

2

L1: Deep brain stimulation induces release of ______ from local neurons.

GABA

3

L1: Dopamine release into the striatum strengthens pathways that correctly predict ______ between expected/actual rewards.

mismatch

4

L1: Neurons in the ______ supply input to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area regarding the predictions of rewards

striatum

5

L1: The major input nuclei for the basal ganglia

Caudate and putamen

6

L1: The output of the basal ganglia

Globus pallidus internus (GPi) (also some substantia nigra pars reticulata)

7

L1: Under resting circumstances, ______ neurons spontaneously fire.

globus pallidus interna

8

L1: What pathology? Flailing movements of the arm and leg unilaterally (following small stroke of posterior cerebral artery ganglionic branch)

Hemiballismus

9

L1: Which pathology? Athetosis and chorea

Huntington's Disease

10

L1: Which pathology? Damage of the striatum

Huntington's Disease

11

L1: Which pathology? Difficulty in initiating movements and slowness of movement

Parkinson's Disease

12

L1: Which pathology? Increased tone due to simultaneous activation of flexors and extensors

Parkinson's Disease

13

L1: Which pathology? Loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra

Parkinson's Disease

14

L1: Which pathology? Minimal change in facial expression

Parkinson's Disease

15

L1: Which pathology? Pill-rolling tremor

Parkinson's Disease

16

L2: _____ act as comparators for when actual rewards and expected rewards are both present

Substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (VTA)

17

L2: Activation of striatal neurons results in downstream _______ of thalamic neurons

activation (disinhibition)

18

L2: Cells in the caudate/putamen supply _____ input to cells in the globus pallidus interna

inhibitory

19

L2: Cells in the globus pallidus interna supply _____ input to cells in the thalamus

inhibitory

20

L2: Cerebral cortex cells supply _____ input to the striatum.

excitatory

21

L2: Cholinergic interneurons and medium spiny neurons, which are destroyed in ________, normally supply ______ input to striatal neurons.

Huntington's Disease; inhibitory

22

L2: DBS in Parkinson's disease is used to stimulate the ________.

globus pallidus internus or subthalamic nucleus

23

L2: In hemiballismus, damage to the _______ results in ______ excitatory input to the globus pallidus

subthalamic nucleus; decreased

24

L2: Main basal ganglia circuit: Cortex > ______ > _____ > _____ > Cortex

striatum; globus pallidus internus; thalamus

25

L2: Pathways passing through the caudate generally pass through the _____ thalamus to provide input to the association cortex

DM

26

L2: Pathways passing through the putamen generally pass through the _____ thalamus to provide input to the motor cortex

VA (some VL)

27

L2: Striatal neurons expressing __ receptors project directly to the globus pallidus internus with dopamine providing ______ input

D1; excitatory

28

L2: Striatal neurons expressing __ receptors project to the globus pallidus externus with dopamine providing ______ input.

inhibitory

29

L2: Striatal neurons supply _____ input to the substantia nigra.

inhibitory

30

L2: Substantia nigra pars compacta neurons result in ________ in the striatum

Diffuse release of dopamine

31

L2: The ____ of the striatum is involved in cognitive or affective processes

caudate

32

L2: The _____ of the striatum is involved in discrete movements

putamen