Flashcards in Unit 3: Basal Ganglia Deck (32):
L1: Basal ganglia lesions result in ___-lateral deficits.
L1: Deep brain stimulation induces release of ______ from local neurons.
L1: Dopamine release into the striatum strengthens pathways that correctly predict ______ between expected/actual rewards.
L1: Neurons in the ______ supply input to the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area regarding the predictions of rewards
L1: The major input nuclei for the basal ganglia
Caudate and putamen
L1: The output of the basal ganglia
Globus pallidus internus (GPi) (also some substantia nigra pars reticulata)
L1: Under resting circumstances, ______ neurons spontaneously fire.
globus pallidus interna
L1: What pathology? Flailing movements of the arm and leg unilaterally (following small stroke of posterior cerebral artery ganglionic branch)
L1: Which pathology? Athetosis and chorea
L1: Which pathology? Damage of the striatum
L1: Which pathology? Difficulty in initiating movements and slowness of movement
L1: Which pathology? Increased tone due to simultaneous activation of flexors and extensors
L1: Which pathology? Loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra
L1: Which pathology? Minimal change in facial expression
L1: Which pathology? Pill-rolling tremor
L2: _____ act as comparators for when actual rewards and expected rewards are both present
Substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (VTA)
L2: Activation of striatal neurons results in downstream _______ of thalamic neurons
L2: Cells in the caudate/putamen supply _____ input to cells in the globus pallidus interna
L2: Cells in the globus pallidus interna supply _____ input to cells in the thalamus
L2: Cerebral cortex cells supply _____ input to the striatum.
L2: Cholinergic interneurons and medium spiny neurons, which are destroyed in ________, normally supply ______ input to striatal neurons.
Huntington's Disease; inhibitory
L2: DBS in Parkinson's disease is used to stimulate the ________.
globus pallidus internus or subthalamic nucleus
L2: In hemiballismus, damage to the _______ results in ______ excitatory input to the globus pallidus
subthalamic nucleus; decreased
L2: Main basal ganglia circuit: Cortex > ______ > _____ > _____ > Cortex
striatum; globus pallidus internus; thalamus
L2: Pathways passing through the caudate generally pass through the _____ thalamus to provide input to the association cortex
L2: Pathways passing through the putamen generally pass through the _____ thalamus to provide input to the motor cortex
VA (some VL)
L2: Striatal neurons expressing __ receptors project directly to the globus pallidus internus with dopamine providing ______ input
L2: Striatal neurons expressing __ receptors project to the globus pallidus externus with dopamine providing ______ input.
L2: Striatal neurons supply _____ input to the substantia nigra.
L2: Substantia nigra pars compacta neurons result in ________ in the striatum
Diffuse release of dopamine
L2: The ____ of the striatum is involved in cognitive or affective processes