Unit 3: Audition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3: Audition Deck (49):
1

L1: _____ of sound is encoded by the frequency of afferent nerve fiber action potentials

Intensity

2

L1: _____ of sound is encoded by the position along the cochlea where the afferent nerve fiber innervates the IHC.

Frequency

3

L1: ______ rely on the spatial separation of ears and direction-dependent differences in path lengths to localize sounds.

Interaural time delays

4

L1: At the ____ of the cochlea, the basilar membrane is thinner, narrower, and more rigid.

base

5

L1: At the ____ of the cochlea, the basilar membrane is wider, thicker, and more flexible.

apex

6

L1: Depolarization of IHCs leads to release of ____ to signal an afferent nerve fiber.

glutamate

7

L1: In the primary auditory cortex, neurons representing ____ frequencies are located more anteriorly.

lower

8

L1: Influx of _______ occurs during mechanosensitive depolarization of IHCs.

potassium

9

L1: Interaural level differences are used for effective localization of ______-frequency sounds.

High

10

L1: Interaural time delays are used for effective localization of _____-frequency sounds.

Low

11

L1: Ototoxic medications often inhibit transduction channels of _______, which eventually kills them.

OHCs

12

L1: Span of human hearing

20-20,000 Hz

13

L1: The ____ of the cochlea responds best to high frequencies.

Base

14

L1: The ____ of the cochlea responds best to low frequencies

Apex

15

L1: The apex of the cochlea responds best to ______ frequencies.

Low

16

L1: The base of the cochlea responds best to ______ frequencies.

High

17

L1: The majority of hair cells in the cochlea are _______.

Outer hair cells

18

L1: The primary auditory cortex is Brodmann area ___, and the secondary cortex including Wernicke's area is Brodmann area ___.

41, 42

19

L1: When the stereocilia bundle is displaced toward the longest stereocilia, _______ is elicited.

depolarization

20

L1: When the stereocilia bundle is displaced toward the shortest stereocilia, _______ is elicited.

hyperpolarization

21

L2: _____ is a localization mechanism that relies on phase-locking.

Interaural time delays

22

L2: ______ neurons sense frequency and intensity and provide efferent innervation to OHCs.

Medial Olivocochlear (MOC)

23

L2: _______ encoded in the dorsal cochlear nucleus is useful for elevation localization.

Monoaural spectral shape

24

L2: ________: creation of sounds by evoked or spontaneous movements of OHCs that set the basilar membrane in motion; used to test newborn hearing

Otoacoustic emissions

25

L2: _______: a ____-rich fluid that fills the scala media

endolymph; potassium

26

L2: At the level of the _______, neurons are encoding auditory information for the contralateral ear.

inferior colliculus

27

L2: Cochlear amplifier: displacement of the ______ by the ____.

basilar membrane; OHCs

28

L2: Decussated DCN and VCN cells regroup in the ________ and ascend to the _______.

Lateral lemniscus; inferior colliculus

29

L2: Dorsal cochlear neurons decussate via the _______.

Dorsal acoustic stria

30

L2: Downward movement of the ________ compresses fluid in the ________, which causes an outward bulging of the round window;

basilar membrane; scala tympani

31

L2: Inferior colliculus neurons innervate the _______.

Ipsilateral Medial Geniculate Nucleus, Contralateral Medial Geniculate Nucleus, Contralateral inferior colliculus

32

L2: Interaural level differences are processed in the ______.

Lateral superior olive

33

L2: Interaural time delays are processed in the _______.

Medial superior olive

34

L2: Lateral superior olive neurons project to the _______ and _______.

ipsilateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), ispsilateral inferior colliculus

35

L2: Mechanisms of overcoming acoustic impedance mismatch (2)

Area of stapes foot, levering action of incus/malleus

36

L2: Medial superior olive neurons send excitatory afferents to the ____ and ______.

ipsilateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), ispsilateral inferior colliculus

37

L2: MTNB neurons are ____-ergic, providing ______ input on the lateral superior olive.

glycin; inhibitory

38

L2: Regions of the auditory cortex are connected via the ______ and _______.

association fibers, anterior commissure

39

L2: The _______ pumps potassium ions into the scala media to maintain an endocochlear potential of _____.

stria vascularis; +80 mV

40

L2: The basal end of the hair cell is bathed in a fluid called ______.

perilymph

41

L2: The lateral superior olive receives ipsilateral input from the ______.

Anteroventral cochlear nucleus

42

L2: The medial geniculate nucleus sends axons to the _______, located in the _______.

Primary auditory cortex (A1); superior temporal gyrus

43

L2: Ventral cochlear neurons decussate via the _______.

Trapezoid body

44

L2: When the stapes is pressed on the _______, the fluid in the ________ is compressed

oval window; scala vestibuli

45

L3: ____ of ANFs are myelinated and innervate _______. (Type ___

95%; IHCs; I

46

L3: ____ of ANFs are unmyelinated and innervate ______. (Type __)

5%; OHCs; II

47

L3: ANFs have cell bodies in the _______ and innervate the ______ and _______.

Spiral ganglion; dorsal cochlear nucleus, ventral cochlear nucleus

48

L3: The inferior colliculus receives auditory fibers from the ______ and ______.

Cochlear nuclei, pontine nuclei (superior olivary complex)

49

L3: The lateral superior olive receives contralateral input from the ______.

Medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) from the AVCN