Unit 4: Sleep and Insomnia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 4: Sleep and Insomnia Deck (33):
1

L1: Which "Z" drug is best used as a sleep aid in the middle of the night, since it does not reduce nocturnal awakenings?

Zaleplon

2

L1: Which "Z" drug is the most widely prescribed hypnotic agent?

Zolpidem

3

L1: Which stage of sleep? Decreased muscle tone, increased BP/HR/RR

REM

4

L1: Which stage of sleep? Delta wave (very slow) EEG), deepest level of sleep

3 and 4

5

L1: Which stage of sleep? EEG looks awake but arousal threshold is elevated

REM

6

L1: Which stage of sleep? Light sleep, slower EEG

2

7

L1: Which stage of sleep? May be involved in synaptic pruning and tuning

3 and 4

8

L1: Which stage of sleep? Transition phase, EEG appears like wakefulness

1

9

L1: Which stage of sleep? When dreams and somnambulism occur

3 and 4

10

L2: ________: sleepiness waxes and wanes as according to signals in the suprachiasmatic nuclei

Circadian altering system

11

L2: ________: the longer we are awake, the sleepier we get; mediated by adenosine

Homeostatic Drive

12

L2: Name the status on/off of the following neurotransmitter during wakefulness and NREM sleep. Orexin

Active, off

13

L2: Name the status on/off of the following neurotransmitter during wakefulness and REM sleep. DA

Active, off

14

L2: Name the status on/off of the following neurotransmitter during wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep. 5HT

Active, reduced, off

15

L2: Name the status on/off of the following neurotransmitter during wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep. ACh

Active, off, active/very active

16

L2: Name the status on/off of the following neurotransmitter during wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep. GABA

Off, active, reduced

17

L2: Name the status on/off of the following neurotransmitter during wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep. Histamine

Active, reduced, off

18

L2: Name the status on/off of the following neurotransmitter during wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep. NE

Active, reduced, off

19

L2: Place the "Z" drugs in order of increasing half-life.

Zaleplon, Zolpidem, Esziopiclone

20

L2: Place the following Benzodiazepines in order of increasing half-life: flurazepam, temazepam, triazolam

Triazolam, Temazepam, Flurazepam

21

L2: Which agent for insomnia has agonist, antagonist, and reuptake inhibition actions on 5HT neurons?

Trazodone

22

L2: Which agent for insomnia is an agonist at MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus?

Ramelteon

23

L2: Which agent for insomnia is an antagonist at H1 histamine receptors and muscarinic receptors?

Diphenhydramine

24

L2: Which agent is a 5HT +/- NE reuptake inhibitor, histamine antagonist, and cholinergic antagonist?

Amitriptyline

25

L2: Which agent is an antidepressant used for insomnia, especially in patients prone to substance abuse?

Trazodone

26

L2: Which BDZ used in treatment of insomnia can lead to rebound insomnia upon withdrawal?

Triazolam

27

L2: Which BDZ used in treatment of insomnia has the highest risk of daytime sedation, especially among elderly patients?

Flurazepam

28

L2: Which BDZ used in treatment of insomnia has the least depression of REM sleep?

Flurazepam

29

L2: Which brain structure? Ascending cortical activation, switch between SWS and REM

Brainstem

30

L2: Which brain structure? Circadian clock that modulates alterness, core body temperature, and melatonin secretion

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

31

L2: Which brain structure? Location where adenosine accumulates during wakefulness and decreases during sleep

Basal forebrain

32

L2: Which brain structure? Responsible for generating slow wave sleep

Thalamus

33

L2: Which brain structure? Sleep/wake switch

Hypothalamus