Unit 1: Nervous System Embryology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1: Nervous System Embryology Deck (69):
1

L1: _____ migration: use of glial cells to climb the ladder and form the characteristic inside-out pattern of the cerebral cortex

Radial

2

L1: A crease forms in the neural plate, resulting in the neural _____.

Groove

3

L1: A neuron leaves the cell cycle and differentiates following a/an _______ division.

asymmetric

4

L1: An asymmetric division in the ventricular zone occurs in a ______ orientation with respect to the ventricular surface.

parallel

5

L1: During the M phase, primitive neurons are located _______.

Medially/deep

6

L1: NT-3, BDNF, and NGF are examples of ______.

Neurotrophins

7

L1: The rhomboencephalon can be divided into 8 _______, which differ in expression of Hox genes.

rhombomeres

8

L1: The third and fourth ventricle communicate via the ______.

Cerebral Aqueduct

9

L1: What pathologic process? Results from a mutation in DCX, a gene involved in microtubule polymerization, which leads to impaired neuronal migration

Double Cortex Syndrome

10

L1: What pathologic process? Results from a mutation in LIS1, a gene involved in regulation of microtubule cytoskeletal function, which leads to impaired neuronal migration

Lissencephaly Type 1

11

L2: _____ are ____-range axon guidance molecules that can facilitate attraction and repulsion.

Netrins; long

12

L2: _____ migration: seen in neurons migrating from the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb

Chain

13

L2: _____ migration: seen in neurons moving from the lateral ganglionic eminence to the cortex

Tangential

14

L2: _______ interact with receptors of the ____ family and are important in facilitating neuronal survival.

Neurotrophins; Trk

15

L2: ________ are short and long-range axon guidance molecules that can facilitate ______.

Semaphorins; repulsion

16

L2: ________ on the presynpatic membrane interact with ______ on the postsynaptic membrane to facilitate alignment of a synapse.

Neuroexins; neuroligins

17

L2: BMPs are secreted by the _______, resulting in a high concentration in the _____ portion of the neural tube.

Lateral ectoderm; dorsal

18

L2: Cadherins, CAMs, and many ECF components are classified as _____-range axon guidance molecules that can facilitate _______.

Short; attraction

19

L2: Dorsal cells that develop into sensory neurons comprise the _____ plate.

alar

20

L2: During ______ neurulation, cells at the caudal end develop vacuoles and make contact with the central canal of the neural tube, creating the ________.

Conus medullaris/filum terminale

21

L2: During ______ neurulation, the notochord releases ___ to induce development of the ________.

Primary; Shh; neural plate

22

L2: During the S phase, primitive neurons are located _______.

Laterally/superficially

23

L2: Ephrins and tenascin are classified as ______-range axon guidance molecules that can facilitate ______.

Short; repulsion

24

L2: In embryonic stages, intracellular chloride levels are _______, causing GABA stimulation to be _______.

increased; excitatory

25

L2: In the ______, neuronal migration occurs opposite of the cerebral cortex, resulting in an outside-in pattern.

Retina

26

L2: MeCP2 mutations on the ____ chromosome affect the process of _______ and give rise to ______.

X; transcription; Rett Syndrome

27

L2: Myelination occurs first in the ______.

periphery

28

L2: Neural crest cells arise between the _____ and the ______.

Neurectoderm, Epidermis

29

L2: Neurogenesis occurs in an adult brain in the __________.

dentate gyrus; subventricular zone

30

L2: Reelin is normally secreted by _______ cells and facilitates the ______ stage of migration

Cajal-Retzius cells; termination

31

L2: Shh is secreted by the ______, resulting in a high concentration in the ______ portion of the neural tube

Notochord; ventral

32

L2: The ____ stream of neural crest cells gives rise to pigment cells.

dorsal

33

L2: The ____ stream of neural crest cells gives rise to sensory, autonomic, and enteric ganglia

ventral

34

L2: The ________ separates the ventral and alar plates of the spinal cord

sulcus limitans

35

L2: The birthdate of a neuron is defined as when ____________.

it undergoes a final round of replication

36

L2: The dentate gyrus gives rise to ________.

Hippocampal neurons

37

L2: The fourth ventricule communicates with the subarachnoid space via the _____.

Foramina of Luschka (2), Foramen of Magendie

38

L2: The metencephalon is located ______ to the myelencephalon

rostral

39

L2: The myelencephalon is located ______ to the metencephalon

caudal

40

L2: The prosencephalon divides into __ vesicles: ________.

3; Telencephalon (2), Diencephalon

41

L2: The rhombencephalon divides into __ vesicles: ________.

2; Myelencephalon, Metencephalon

42

L2: The subventricular zone gives rise to _______.

Olfactory neurons

43

L2: The telencephalic vesicles are located ______ to the diencephalon.

rostral

44

L2: The third ventricle communicates with the lateral ventricles via the _______.

Foramina of Munro

45

L2: Until age two, the cerebellum may receive new cells via secondary neurogenesis occuring in the _______.

External granule layer

46

L2: Ventral cells that develop into motor neurons comprise the _____ plate.

basal

47

L2: What pathologic process? Neurons pile up in an outside-in orientation in the cortex, leading to a reeling gait

Lissencephaly with Cerebellar Hypoplasia (LCH)

48

L2: What pathologic process? Results from mutated Filamin A (FLNA), an actin-crosslinking protein, which leads to impaired initiation of neuronal migration

Periventricular Heteroptopia

49

L2: What pathologic process? Results from mutations in reelin (reeler gene), which is involved in termination of migration

Lissencephaly with Cerebellar Hypoplasia (LCH)

50

L2: What pathologic process? Severe mental retardation and epilepsy

Lissencephaly Type 1

51

L2: What pathologic process? Severe mental retardation and epilepsy in males

Double Cortex Syndrome

52

L2: What pathologic process? Smoothened surface of the cerebral cortex with epilepsy, mild intellectual deficitis, and subcortical band heterotopia in females

Double Cortex Syndrome

53

L2: What pathologic process? X-linked dominant disorder that is fatal in males and results in epilepsy in females.

Periventricular Heteroptopia

54

L2: When neural crest cells reach their end destination, ______ are expressed.

Cadherins

55

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Cerebellum

Metencephalic

56

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Cerebral Aqueduct

Mesencephalic

57

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Cerebral hemisphere

Telencephalic

58

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Fourth ventricle

rhombencephaloc

59

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Hypothalamus

Diencephalic

60

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Lateral ventricle

Telencephalic

61

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Medulla

Myelencephalic

62

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Pons

Metencephalic

63

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Thalamus

Diencephalic

64

L2: Which primitive vesicle? Third ventricle

Diencephalic

65

L2:At the rostral end of the neural tube, three primary cerebral vesicles form: _______.

Prosencephalon, Mesencephalon, Rhombencephalon

66

L3: ______ mutations leads to improved stability of a protein involved in internalization of AMPA receptors; resulting in _______.

UBE3a; Angelman Syndrome

67

L3: _______ are cells that are only innervated by a single neuron in a developed nervous system

Muscle fibers, Purkinje cells (cerebellum)

68

L3: Name three regions of secondary neurogenesis.

External granule layer, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus

69

L4: Name the layers/zones in order starting closest to the ventricular zone.

Subplate, intermediate zone, cortical plate, marginal zone