Flashcards in W15_03 substance abuse 2 Deck (23)
what are the 2 major neurotransmitter systems affected in alcohol?
GABA - cns inhibition;
glutamate - CNS excitation
what are 2 main acute (6-24h) alcohol withdrawal symptoms?
note: hallucinations (mostly visual) and seizures (grand mal) can occur after alcohol withdrawal too
8-24 hours, 24-48 hours respectively
when do delirium tremens occur in alcohol withdrawal?
72-92 hours after last drink;
tachycardia, tremor, diaphoresis, fever, disorientation, global confusion, hallucinations, psychomotor agitation;
mortality up to 30-40%
what's the medical treatment of choice for those in alcohol detox?
what are the 5 stages of treatment?
prevention of relapse
recall the CAGE questionnaire
feel the need to cut down?
Annoyed by criticism on drinking?
Eye openers in the morning?
what's the binge drinking question?
in the past year, how many occassions have you have 5+ drinks (men) or 4+ drinks (women) in one day?
what are the limits for "too much" drinking?
what is naltrexone?
opioid antagonist for alcohol withdrawal
what is acamprosate?
enhances GABA system and modulates glutamate to relieve sub-acute withdrawal of alcohol
inhibits acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, so any alcohol causes hangover effects quickly
which receptors do opiods act on?
endorphin (mu) receptors
name some opioid drugs
note: common pain conditions usually don't need opiates, so try to find others
what are symptoms of opioid withdrawal?
myalgia, chills, vomiting
note: methadone can relieve withdrawal symptoms without inducing sedation or euphoria
how does buprenorphine work?
partial agonist that displaces other opioids - ceiling effect so can't overdose
note: cannabis is discussed
how does cocaine work?
blocks presynaptic uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
metabolite of GABA;
how does MDMA work?
stimulates release of serotonin