Flashcards in W12_09 pediatric infectious diseases 2 Deck (19):
what's the most common etiology of meningitis in children > 90 days
note: you can't do nuchal rigidity testing in really young children because they're often all over the place
if they "look" sick, consider LP
what's the first line therapy for meningitis in neonates?
ampicillin + cefotaxime
what's the first line therapy for meningitis in 1-3 mo children?
ampicillin + cefotaxime + vancomycin
what's the first line therapy for meningitis in >3 mo children?
ceftriaxone + vancomycin (for strep pneumo resistance)
toxin inhibits acetylcholine release by binding to the presynaptic membrane
what are the three manifestations and etiologies of botulism?
food-borne, where the toxin is preformed;
wound botulism, where a wound gets spores;
infant botulism, where the baby ingests spores
note: the presentation of infant botulism is nonspecific.
floppy child is the most common. Diagnosis can be easily missed
can you use antibiotics for botulism in babies?
no, not helpful, and aminoglycosides will make it worse
what's the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock?
superantigen-mediated disease where there's nonspecific activation of T cells, then cytokine storm
what's the management for streptococcal toxic shock?
antibiotics (penicillin, clindamycin);
what's the most common congenital infection?
CMV infection (0.5-1%)
what does congenital CMV infection cause?
microcephaly, CNS calcifications, mental retardation;
how does congenital CMV typically occur?
mothers have two kids, one in daycare is infected with no symptoms. Passes it to mother, who also has no symptoms. Then mother passes it to the newborn
what's the treatment for congenital CMV infection?
blueberry muffin rash is indicative of what?
what kind of antiretroviral therapy is given for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission?
triple ART starting in second trimester;
intravenous zidovudine during labour;
six weeks of zidovudine to infant
when to do C-section for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission?
if VL > 1000 copies/mL