Flashcards in W12_07 common problems in toddlers Deck (27)
note: temper tantrums are normal
kids are frustrated - can't do what they want to do
what are the 4 areas of limit setting for temper tantrums?
what's the approach for a child with temper tantrum?
allow child to blow off steam;
physical restraint (if you have to prevent danger);
reinforce teaching principle
note: positive reinforcement is always better than negative reinforcement!
recall breath-holding spells
usually 12-18 months;
5% of kids;
decreased oxygen/blood to brain;
tx: disregard the child
recall sibling rivalry
bound to happen
when do kids start to have control over external sphincters?
mature control by 18-24 months
what's the pain-retention cycle of bowel movements?
voluntary withholding of stool;
painful bowel movement;
voluntary witholding of stool
what're the causes of diarrhea?
sometimes extraintestinal, or drugs
what're the factors that make diarrhea more of a bacterial cause than viral?
blood in stool;
severity (bacteria usually more serious)
how much fluid intake is requried for every 1 degree increase in body temp?
what's the gold standard for dehydration assessment in acute diarrhea?
what do dry tears or dry mouths represent in fluid loss estimate?
5 percent (3 in adults)
what do decreased urine output, sunken eyes, fontanelle depression, apathy represent in fluid loss estimate?
10 percent (6 in adults)
how much fluid loss has to occur before shock sets in?
15 percent (9 in adults)
how to treat acute diarrhea?
water, electrolytes, oral rehydration therapy;
limit intake for vomiting, limit complicating foods for diarrhea; ondansetron for nausea
when do sphenoidal sinuses develop?
when do frontal sinuses develop?
what's the timespan of acute bacterial sinusitis?
< 30 days
what're some recommendations for diagnosis of acute bacterial sinusitis?
persistent past 10 days;
worsening after initial improvement;
fever of 39+, purulent discharge after 3-4 days (this is severe)
what's the first line therapy for acute bacterial sinusitis?
what can cause diaper rash?
irritation due to increased pH from urine;
bacterial (e.g. strep);
what are treatments for diaper rash
how many baby teeth are there?
how do the first 4 pairs of baby teeth come in?
lower central incisor;
upper central incisor;