Wk 1 Obstructive Sleep Apnea Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 1 Obstructive Sleep Apnea Deck (24)
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1
Q

Disorder characterized by obstructive apnea, hypopnea, and/or respiratory arousals caused by repetitive collapse of upper airway during sleep

A

Obstructive sleep apnea

2
Q

What are the risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea?

A

Increased age, male, obese, smoker, and nasopharyngeal structural abnormalities

3
Q

Why does obesity contribute to obstructive sleep apnea?

A

Excess adipose tissue weighs down on the neck and obstructs the airway

4
Q

People with obstructive sleep apnea are often __ that they have it

A

unaware

5
Q

Who often brings it to the patient’s attention that they have breathing problems during sleep?

A

their significant others or whoever the sleep next to

6
Q

What are the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea?

A

Daytime sleepiness, snoring, choking, gasping during sleep, and morning headaches

7
Q

Because people with obstructive sleep apnea are so sleep deprived they often have __ __ __, due to falling asleep

A

motor vehicle crashes

8
Q

Because OSA can lead to hypertension in the lungs from constantly holding their breath, patients can develop __ __ and even __ __

A

heart failure, metabolic syndrome

9
Q

Patients with OSA may suffer from __ dysfunction due to lack of sleep

A

neuropsychiatric

10
Q

Two factors on a physical exam that may cause OSA

A

high neck and waist circumference

11
Q

Test that is the gold standard for diagnosing OSA

A

Polysomnography

12
Q

What is the mainstay for treatment of OSA

A

CPAP

13
Q

What does CPAP stand for?

A

continuous positive airway pressure

14
Q

Why is a CPAP the most common used for sleep apnea?

A

Simplest to use, works well, cheap

15
Q

A CPAP does not augment ventilation other than to…

A

maintain upper airway patency

16
Q

What is the problem with CPAP treatment for sleep apnea?

A

Adherence

17
Q

A CPAP is for what type of patient?

A

for spontaneous breathing patients to improve oxygenation

18
Q

A BiPap is for what type of patient?

A

patients with neuromuscular disease, chest wall deformity, OSA, and COPD for nocturnal ventilation

19
Q

A BiPap is used to prevent…

A

Intubation

20
Q

A CPAP is used to prevent…

A

Upper airway obstruction

21
Q

What makes a BiPap different than a CPAP?

A

It uses two pressures, one during inspiration and one during exhalation

22
Q

What are nonsurgical treatments for OSA?

A

Weight reduction, exercise, avoid alcohol and smoking, sleep on one side, improve sleep hygiene, and use oral appliances

23
Q

Oral appliances are used for which patients?

A

Those with mild to moderate OSA

24
Q

4 surgical interventions for OSA

A

1) Tissue removal or shrinkage (back of throat)
2) Jaw repositioning
3) Implant
4) Tracheostomy