Wk 2 Hematology Labs and Diagnostics Flashcards Preview

Med Surg I > Wk 2 Hematology Labs and Diagnostics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Wk 2 Hematology Labs and Diagnostics Deck (76)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What four tests are part of a CBC?

A

1) RBC
2) Hemoglobin & Hematocrit
3) WBC
4) Platelets

2
Q

What is the normal platelet count?

A

150-300/400K

3
Q

What is the order of leukocytes shown on a differential

A
Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils
4
Q

What is the normal percentage range for neutrophils?

A

40-70%

5
Q

What is the normal percentage range for lymphocytes?

A

20-25%

6
Q

What is the normal percentage range for monocytes?

A

3-8%

7
Q

What is the normal percentage range for eosinophils?

A

2-4%

8
Q

What is the normal percentage range for basophils?

A

Less than 1%

9
Q

What is would a raise in neutrophils indicate?

A

Actue bacterial infection

10
Q

What are the seg neutrophils?

A

mature neutrophils

11
Q

What are the immature neutrophils called?

A

Bands

12
Q

Which type of neutrophil raises with an actue bacterial infection?

A

Bands

13
Q

What is a raise in the percentage of band neutrophils called?

A

shift to the left

14
Q

What does a CBC count show specifically for red blood cells? (three things)

A

1) total number of RBCs
2) Hemoglobin and hematocrit
3) morphology

15
Q

What are the two tests for RBC morphology called?

A

MCV and MCHC

16
Q

What does morphology refer to?

A

Color, size, and shape of cell

17
Q

What does RBC morphology help a provider do?

A

Determine the cause of the anemia of a patient

18
Q

What does MCV stand for?

A

Mean corpuscular volume

19
Q

What does the MCV test for?

A

The size of the red blood cells

20
Q

What does normocytic mean?

A

Normal cell size

21
Q

What does microcytic mean?

A

Small cell size

22
Q

What is an example of a microcytic anemia?

A

Iron deficiency anemia

23
Q

What does macrocytic mean?

A

Large cell size

24
Q

What is an example of a macrocytic anemia?

A

B12 and folate deficiency anemias

25
Q

What type of anemias are folate and b12 deficiency?

A

megaloblastic anemias

26
Q

What does MCHC stand for?

A

Mean concentration of hemoglobin

27
Q

What does MCHC test for?

A

How concentrated the RBC is with hemoglobin

28
Q

If the RBC has a normal amount of hemoglobin, what is it called?

A

Normochromic

29
Q

If the RBC does not have enough hemoglobin, what is it called?

A

Hypochromic

30
Q

Hypochromic red blood cells look __ in color

A

pale

31
Q

Why do hypochromic red blood cells look pale in color?

A

The hemoglobin is what gives it it’s red color

32
Q

When looking at H&H, what is most important?

A

Trends, not stand alone values!

33
Q

What is hemoglobin?

A

Iron containing pigment of the RBC

34
Q

What is normal hemoglobin range for a woman?

A

12-16g/dL

35
Q

What is a normal hemoglobin range for a man?

A

14-18 g/dL

36
Q

What is hematocrit?

A

Percentage of total blood volume that is made up off red blood cells

37
Q

What is the normal range of hematocrit for males?

A

42-52%

38
Q

What is the normal range of hematocrit for females?

A

37-47%

39
Q

What happens if a patient has a low hematocrit?

A

They are anemic

40
Q

What are some causes of anemia? (4)

A

Bleeding
Bone marrow failure
Dietary deficiency
Renal disease

41
Q

What happens if someone has a high hematocrit?

A

Polycythemia

42
Q

What can happen if a patient has fluid retention (in relation to their hematocrit)?

A

The hematocrit will be lower

43
Q

What can happen if a patient has dehydration (in relation to their hematocrit)?

A

The hematocrit will be higher

44
Q

Iron serum is low with __ __ __

A

iron deficiency anemia

45
Q

What percentage of the body’s iron is found on the RBCs?

A

about 70%

46
Q

How is the rest of the iron in the body stored?

A

In the form of ferritin and hemosiderin

47
Q

Iron is bound to a protein called __

A

transferrin

48
Q

What is transferrin?

A

A protein that transports iron

49
Q

What will also be decreased with iron deficiency anemia besides iron?

A

transferrin

50
Q

What three blood tests will show iron deficiency anemias?

A

Serum iron, serum transferrin, serum ferritin

51
Q

What is ferritin?

A

A protein that stores iron

52
Q

What serum blood test is the most sensitive to test for iron deficiency anemia?

A

Serum ferritin

53
Q

What is a test you can do to see if someone has pernicious anemia?

A

antibodies to intrinsic factor

54
Q

What type of cells produce intrinsic factor?

A

parietal cells in the stomach

55
Q

Without intrinsic factor your body can’t do what?

A

Breakdown and digest vitamin b12

56
Q

Why is it called pernicious anemia?

A

It due to the autoimmune disease

57
Q

Not every b12 deficiency anemia is…

A

pernicious anemia

58
Q

What else might be the cause of vitamin b12 deficiency?

A

Poor intake, like someone who is vegan

59
Q

How might you test for someone who has poor intake of vitamin b12?

A

Serum folate and serum vitamin b12

60
Q

What is a stool for guaiac test?

A

Occult blood test

61
Q

Blood in the stool that you can see with your eyes

A

frank blood

62
Q

What is melena?

A

Blood in the stool that is dark, tarry, and malodorous (digested blood)

63
Q

6 additional tests for anemia

A

1) positive antibodies to intrinsic factor
2) serum b12 and serum folate
3) Coombs test
4) bone marrow exam
5) stool for guaiac
6) esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or colonoscopy

64
Q

What is a Coombs test?

A

A serum blood test used to differentiate between the types of hemolytic anemia

65
Q

What does a direct coombs test, test for?

A

Indicated whether the body is attacking it’s own red blood cells

66
Q

What causes the body to attack it’s own RBCs?

A

Drugs, immunity, incompatible blood transfusion

67
Q

What is an indirect Coombs test used for?

A

Screen for antibodies prior to a blood transfusion

68
Q

What is a “type & screen” test?

A

An indirect Coombs test, they will use at the blood bank to test for the type of blood and screen for antibodies for blood compatibility

69
Q

What is a bone marrow biopsy?

A

Removal of bone marrow to evaluate blood forming tissues

70
Q

What does a bone marrow biopsy indicate?

A

Unexplained anemias, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia

71
Q

Do you need informed consent from the patient for a bone marrow biopsy?

A

Yes

72
Q

What is typically done before a bone marrow biopsy for comfort of the patient?

A

Premedicate

73
Q

What should be done after a bone marrow biopsy?

A

Apply gentle pressure and assess bleeding post-procedure

74
Q

What type of anemia will a bone marrow biopsy diagnose?

A

Aplastic anemia

75
Q

Where are blood cells made the body?

A

The red bone marrow

76
Q

Where is a good site for aspirating red bone marrow for a biopsy?

A

Iliac crest (lower back)