Wk 1 Pneumonia Flashcards Preview

Med Surg I > Wk 1 Pneumonia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Wk 1 Pneumonia Deck (56)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Pneumonia definition:

A

Acute infection of the lung parenchyma

2
Q

What is a parenchyma?

A

A functional unit of an organ

3
Q

Functional portion (parenchyma) of the lung is the __.

A

Alveoli

4
Q

Name 7 risk factors for pneumonia

A
Age >65
Altered level of consciousness
Immobility
Debilitating illness
Malnutrition 
Smoking
Tracheal Intubation
5
Q

Why is a patient with altered level of consciousness at risk factor for pneumonia?

A

They have a weakened cough and can’t expectorate their secretions

6
Q

What type of pneumonia does altered LOC and weakened cough put a patient at risk for?

A

Aspiration pneumonia

7
Q

In who does community-acquired pneumonia occur?

A

Patients who have not been hospitalized or lived in a long-term care facility within 14 days of first onset of symptoms

8
Q

To be considered hospital-acquired pneumonia, the onset of symptoms should start at least…

A

48 hours after admission

9
Q

If a patient is admitted with symptoms of pneumonia, can it be considered hospital-acquired?

A

No

10
Q

A type of hospital-acquired pneumonia that often occurs in the ICU?

A

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)

11
Q

List the four types of pneumonia .

A

Viral, bacterial, aspiration, opportunistic

12
Q

What is the most common type of pneumonia?

A

Viral

13
Q

Opportunistic pneumonia occurs in __ patients.

A

Immunocompromised

14
Q

Aspiration pneumonia results from…?

A

Abnormal entry of material from mouth/stomach into lungs/trachea

15
Q

This type of pneumonia is more serious and may require hospitalization.

A

Bacterial pneumonia

16
Q

Viral pneumonia usually resolves in…?

A

3-4 days

17
Q

What is the severity (virulence) of viral pneumonia?

A

It can be mild or self-limiting, or cause potentially life-threatening problems

18
Q

Name three risk factors for aspiration pneumonia

A

Decreased LOC, dysphasia, and NG tubes

19
Q

Nasogastric tubes must be __ to prevent aspiration pneumonia

A

post pyloric

20
Q

Aspiration pneumonia may be __.

A

Silent

21
Q

Pneumonia is usually preceded by an __ __ __.

A

upper respiratory infection

22
Q

Myalgia definition

A

Muscle aches and pain

23
Q

Malaise definition

A

General feeling of illness, discomfort, or lack of well-being

24
Q

Common manifestation of infection in the elderly

A

New onset confusion

25
Q

List the symptoms of pneumonia

A

Fever, chills, cough, malaise, myalgia, chest pain with inspiration or cough, dyspnea, fatigue, confusion (elderly)

26
Q

A bacterial pneumonia cough presents as __ and __.

A

productive and purulent

27
Q

Purulent sputum looks…

A

green, rusty, like red currant jelly

28
Q

A viral pneumonia cough presents as __ or __ cough.

A

nonproductive or scanty

29
Q

In severe cases of pneumonia you can have __ __ or __ __.

A

respiratory distress or respiratory failure

30
Q

Patients with __ are the ones most often admitted to the hospital with pneumonia

A

comorbidities

31
Q

List three diagnostic tests used to diagnose pneumonia

A

CXR
CBC w/ diff
Sputum C&S

32
Q

On a chest x-ray, the provider will look for…

A

Infiltrates

33
Q

What are infiltrates?

A

Haziness on a chest x ray where it should be clear

34
Q

Leukocytosis is seen in patients with what type of pneumonia?

A

Bacterial

35
Q

Leukopenia definition

A

Low WBC count

36
Q

What does a shift to the left mean on a WBC with differential?

A

Increase in count of immature neutrophils

37
Q

What type of leukocyte is the first to respond in an acute bacterial infection?

A

Neutrophils

38
Q

A positive sputum culture and sensitivity will identify what two things?

A

The bacteria and the antibiotics it is susceptible/resistant to

39
Q

If the pneumonia is viral the sputum c&s will have what result?

A

negative

40
Q

Four things to educate your patient on for pneumonia prevention

A

Pneumococcal vaccine, stop smoking, adequate sleep/rest, proper nutrition

41
Q

Three things for the nurse to do for patients hospitalized with pneumonia (or at risk)

A

1) Know who is at risk!
2) Pulmonary toilet, early ambulation
3) Standard precautions and hand hygiene

42
Q

For a patient with pneumonia, you should monitor __ and __ frequently. Trend the data.

A

Vital signs and pulse oximetry

43
Q

When monitoring the vital signs of a patient with pneumonia, if that patient has an infection they may have alterations in vital signs such as…

A

Fever
tachycardia
hypertension
hypoxemia

44
Q

You should auscultate your patient’s lungs at the beginning of your shift to get a…?

A

Baseline for later comparison

45
Q

What nursing intervention to keep pulse oximetry (typically) above 95%?

A

Supplemental oxygen if ordered

46
Q

What is pulmonary toileting?

A

Turn, cough, deep breath, incentive spirometer

47
Q

Postural drainage and percussion are examples of?

A

Chest physiotherapy (CPT)

48
Q

Why does increased fluid intake help with pneumonia?

A

Helps loosen secretions

49
Q

You can increase fluid intake by which two methods?

A

PO (if allowed) or IV

50
Q

List nine nursing interventions in a patient with pneumonia or at risk for pneumonia

A

1) VS/Pulse ox monitoring
2) Lung auscultation
3) Supplemental oxygen
4) Pulmonary toileting/CPT
5) Increased fluid intake
6) Ambulation
7) Energy conservation
8) Drug Therapy
9) Teaching

51
Q

In a patient with heart failure, increased fluid intake would be __.

A

Contraindicated

52
Q

Energy conservation is necessary in a patient with pneumonia because they will have __ __

A

Activity intolerance

53
Q

Drug therapy for bacterial pneumonia

A

Antibiotics

54
Q

Drug therapy for pleuritic pain (chest pain)

A

Analgesics

55
Q

Drug therapy for fever

A

Antipyretics

56
Q

Pyretic means…

A

of or relating to fever