Wk 4 Review of Terms and Skin Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 4 Review of Terms and Skin Cancer Deck (94)
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1
Q

What is a macule?

A

Circumscribed, flat discoloration

2
Q

What colors can a macule be?

A

Blue
Red
Brown
Hypopigmented

3
Q

How large are macules?

A

<0.5cm in diameter

4
Q

If a macule is >0.5cm, it is a __

A

patch

5
Q

What are examples of macules?

A

Freckles
Petechiae
Measles
Flat mole
Cafe-au-lait spots
Vitiligo

6
Q

What is a nevus?

A

A flat mole

7
Q

What is vitiligo?

A

Complete depigmentation

8
Q

This is an example of a…

A

Macule patch

9
Q

This is an example of a…

A

Macule

10
Q

What is this called?

A

Vitiligo (macule)

11
Q

What is the medical term for a birth mark?

A

Cafe-au-lait spots

12
Q

What is this an example of?

A

Cafe-au-lait spot

13
Q

How do you pronounce cafe-au-lait?

A

Cafe - oh - lay

14
Q

What is this an example of?

A

Petechiae (macule)

15
Q

What is this an example of?

A

Nevus (flat mole) (macule)

16
Q

Petechiae look like freckles, but they are not they are tiny __

A

Hemorrhages

17
Q

What is a bruised area called?

A

Ecchymosis

18
Q

What are some causes of petechiae?

A

Thrombocytopenia

Leukemia

Vasculitis

Infectious diseases

19
Q

What is this an example of?

A

Measles (Rubella) (macules)

20
Q

What is a papule?

A

Elevated, solid lesion

21
Q

How large is a papule?

A

<0.5cm in diameter

22
Q

What colors are papules?

A

Color varies

23
Q

If a papule is >0.5cm in diameter, then it is a __

A

nodule

24
Q

What are examples of papules?

A

Warts (verruca)

elevated moles

lipomas

basal cell carcinoma

25
Q

How do you pronounce vitiligo?

A

Vit uh lie go

26
Q

What is the medical term for a wart?

A

Verruca

27
Q

This is an example of a…

A

lipoma (papule)

28
Q

This is an example of…

A

basal cell carcinoma (papule)

29
Q

What is a plaque?

A

Circumscribed, elevated, superficial solid lesion

30
Q

How large are plaques?

A

>0.5cm in diameter

31
Q

What are 2 examples of plaques?

A

Psoriasis

Seborrheic and actinic keratosis

32
Q

This is an example of…

A

Psoriasis (plaque)

33
Q

This is an example of…

A

Actinic keratosis (plaque)

34
Q

This is an example of…

A

Seborrheic keratosis (plaque)

35
Q

What is a pustule?

A

Elevated, superficial lesion filled with purulent fluid

36
Q

What are two examples of a pustule?

A

Acne

Impetigo

37
Q

This is an example of…

A

Impetigo (pustule)

38
Q

Impetigo is most common in…

A

Children

39
Q

What is a vesicle?

A

Circumscribed, superficial collection of serous fluid

40
Q

How large is a vesicle?

A

<0.5cm in diameter

41
Q

If a pustule is greater than 0.5cm in diameter, it is called a…

A

bulla

42
Q

What are 3 examples of vesicles?

A

Varicella

Herpes Zoster

Second-degree burn

43
Q

What virus causes chickenpox?

A

Varicella

44
Q

What virus causes shingles?

A

herpes zoster

45
Q

This is an example of…

A

second-degree burn (vesicle)

46
Q

This is an example of…

A

Shingles (vesicle)

47
Q

This is an exampe of…

A

Chickenpox (vesicle)

48
Q

What is a wheal?

A

Firm, edematous, irregularly shaped area (size varies)

49
Q

What is something notable about a wheal?

A

They may last only a few hours

50
Q

What are 3 example of wheals?

A

Insect bite

Urticaria

Angioedema

51
Q

What is angioedema?

A

a reaction similar to hives that affects deeper layers of the skin. It can appear with hives or alone. Signs and symptoms include: Welts that form in minutes to hours. Swelling, especially around the eyes, cheeks or lips.

52
Q

This is an example of…

A

Angioedema (wheal)

53
Q

What are the primary skin lesions? (6)

A

Macule

Papule

Plaque

Pustule

Vesicle

Wheal

54
Q

What is atrophy?

A

Depression in skin resulting from thinning of the epidermis or demis

55
Q

What are 2 examples of atrophy?

A

Aged skin

Striae

56
Q

What is excoriation?

A

Area in which epidermis is missing, exposing the dermis

57
Q

What are two examples of excoration?

A

scratch

abrasion

58
Q

What is a fissure?

A

Linear crack or break from the epidermis to the dermis

59
Q

A fissure can be __ or __

A

dry or moist

60
Q

What are 3 examples of fissures?

A

Athlete’s foot

Chapping

Eczema

61
Q

What is scaling?

A

Excess, dead epidermal cells made by abnormal keratinization and shedding

62
Q

What are 2 examples of scaling?

A

Flaking of skin after a drug reaction or a sunburn

63
Q

What is an abnormal formation of connective tissue that replaces normal skin?

A

Scarring

64
Q

What are 2 examples of scarring?

A

Surgical incision

Healed wound

65
Q

What is an ulcer?

A

Loss of the epidermis and dermis, crater-like irregular shape.

66
Q

An ulcer heals with __

A

scarring

67
Q

What are 2 examples of an ulcer?

A

Pressure ulcer

Chancre

68
Q

This is an example of…

A

a chancre (syphilis) (ulcer)

69
Q

What is pale skin called?

A

Pallor

70
Q

What do you call reddened skin?

A

Erythema

71
Q

Skin cancer is the most __ cancer

A

diagnosed

72
Q

Skin cancers are classifed as __ or __

A

nonmelanoma or melanoma

73
Q

Early detection of skin cancer is mostly because..

A

lesions are visible

74
Q

What are 5 risk factors for skin cancer

A

Fair skinned

History of outdoor activities

Leaving near equator or high altitudes

Family history of skin cancer

Indoor tanning

75
Q

What are the secondary lesions?

A

Atrophy

Excoriation

Fissure

Scale

Scar

Ulcer

76
Q

Basal cell carcinoma is a __ skin cancer

A

nonmelanoma

77
Q

What do the plaques of basal cell carcinoma look like? (4 characteristics)

A

Erythematous

Pearly

sharply defined

depression in the middle

78
Q

Squamous cell carcinoma is a __ skin cancer

A

nonmelanoma

79
Q

What causes squamous cell cancer?

A

Comes from keratinizing epidermal cells

80
Q

Squamous cell carcinoma can be __

A

agressive

81
Q

What do the lesions of squamous cell carcinoma look like?

A

Thin

Scaly

Erythematous plaque

82
Q

This is an example of…

A

squamous cell carcinoma

83
Q

Where does malignant melanoma come from?

A

Tumors come from melanocytes

84
Q

10% of patients with malignant melanoma have a…

A

1st degree relative with the disease (familial component)

85
Q

Treatment for malignant melanoma depends on…

A

The depth of the lesion

86
Q

If the lesion for malignant melanoma is >1.5mm, what is the treatment?

A

Requires treatment AFTER removal

87
Q

Concerning malignant melanoma, there is a correlation between what?

A

Survival rates and depth of the lesion

88
Q

What is the prognosis for malignant melanoma?

A

Poor unless diagnosed and treated early

89
Q

Malignant melanaoma may…

A

metastasize to ANY organ

90
Q

This is an exampe of…

A

malignant melanoma

91
Q

What is the ABDCE mnemonic stand for?

A

Asymmetry

Border

Color

Diameter

Evolving

92
Q

What is the ABCDE used for?

A

Malignant melanoma

93
Q

What is the diagnostic tool for malignant melanoma

A

biopsy

94
Q

What are 4 nursing implications for a patient with skin cancer?

A

Skin integrity care

Anxiety/coping

Teach related to are of biopsy

Annual dermatology checkups