Wk 3 Calcium Imbalances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 3 Calcium Imbalances Deck (20)
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1
Q

What is the main function of calcium?

A

Effects membrane and nerve excitability

2
Q

only 1% of calcium resides in the cells and half of that is…

A

protein bound and the other half is ionized/available for use

3
Q

What is the main cause of hypercalcemia?

A

Hyperparathyroidism

4
Q

What is the other main cause of hypercalcemia?

A

Hematologic cancers

5
Q

What is it called when cancer cells secrete substances that don’t really make any sense?

A

Paraneoplastic disorders

6
Q

What is an example of a paraneoplastic disorder?

A

A person will lung cancer will secrete calcium

7
Q

What is the number one reason for someone having hypocalcemia?

A

Renal failure

8
Q

What is another major reason for hypocalcemia?

A

Deficient parathyroid or removal of the parathyroid

9
Q

What is a less common reason for hypocalcemia?

A

Multiple blood transfusions

10
Q

Excess calcium is like a sedative in that…

A

patient will have reduced cell excitability of muscles and nerves

11
Q

Confusion, psychosis, seizures, and coma are symptoms of…

A

hypercalcemia

12
Q

If someone is mildly hypercalcemic

A

Stop calcium meds
Low calcium diet
increase weight bearing exercises
maintain adequate hydration

13
Q

If someone is severely hypercalcemic

A

IV isotonic saline

Biphosphonate and calcitonin injections

14
Q

What is the gold standard for treatment of hypercalcemia if it is caused by cancer?

A

pamidronate

15
Q

Calcitonin does what?

A

Rapidly increases renal calcium excretion but is not a long-term solution

16
Q

What is the major manifestation of hypocalcemia?

A

Tetany (excess nerve excitability and sustained contraction)

17
Q

Two physical assessment finds that are indicative of hypocalcemia

A

Chvostek’s sign (face)

Trousseau’s sign (carpal spasms)

18
Q

What else might we see for someone with hypocalcemia?

A

EKG changes

19
Q

For someone with mild hypocalcemia…

A

Diet high in calcium

Supplements and vitamin D

20
Q

For someone with severe hypocalcemia…

A

IV calcium gluconate