Wk 4 Care of the HIV patient and AIDS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 4 Care of the HIV patient and AIDS Deck (28)
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1
Q

The final stage of HIV infection before the patient dies

A

AIDS

2
Q

A patient is considered to have AIDs with a CD4 count of…

A

200 or less

3
Q

What are specific opportunistic infections that are AIDS defining illnesses? (4)

A

Pneumocystis jirovecii
HIV-related encephalopathy
Disseminated histoplasmosis
Candidiasis of the esophagus or bronchi

4
Q

What type of cancers are an AIDS defining illness? (2)

A

Burkitt’s lymphoma

Kaposi’s sarcoma

5
Q

How is a HIV-infected patient diagnosed with AIDS?

A

They either have a CD4 count below 200 or they have an AIDS defining illness

6
Q

What are 4 nursing interventions for HIV prevention?

A

1) Avoid and/or modify risk factors
2) Be comfortable with sensitive subjects
3) Safer sex - how to use male and female condoms
4) Decrease drug use or needle exchange programs

7
Q

What are 3 more nursing interventions for HIV prevention?

A

5) Decrease risk of perinatal transmission
6) Encourage HIV testing as routine
7) Decrease risk at work (healthcare universal precautions)

8
Q

What 5 bodily fluids are considered potentially HIV infectious?

A
Blood
Cerebrospinal fluid
Synovial fluid
Pleural fluid
Amniotic fluid
9
Q

What is the single most important source for HIV transmission?

A

Blood

10
Q

What is the risk for getting HIV from a needle-stick with contaminated HIV blood?

A

0.2%, very small

11
Q

What are 3 examples of healthcare worker exposure to HIV?

A

Needle stick or cut with a sharp object
Mucous membrane contact
Non-intact skin contact (chapped skin)

12
Q

Recommendations of post-exposure prophylaxis depend on what two things?

A

Nature/severity of exposure

HIV status of exposure source

13
Q

How soon should post-exposure prophylaxis be started?

A

ASAP, preferably within 1-2 hours but definitely within 72 hours

14
Q

Who needs to go for HIV testing in a needle-stick situation?

A

Both the patient and the healthcare worker

15
Q

What are 5 nursing implications for antiretroviral therapy?

A
Advantages and disadvantages
Dangers of non adherence 
How and when to take the drugs
Drug interactions to avoid
Side effects to report to HCP
16
Q

What are 5 strategies to promote adherence to ART?

A
Ensure motivation/Establish trust
Social Support
Negotiate a treatment plan
Devise a simpler regimen
Anticipate side effects
17
Q

Candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis:

Have had anal or vaginal sex in the last 6 months and… (3)

A

Have a sexual partner with HIV (especially if undetectable viral load)
Have not consistently used a condom
Have been diagnosed with a STD

18
Q

Candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis:

People who inject drugs and… (2)

A

Have an injection partner with HIV

Share needles, syringes, or equipment to inject drugs

19
Q

What is pre-exposure prophylaxis?

A

Daily medication to lower the chance of getting HIV

20
Q

What are the 2 drugs that are recommended HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs?

A

Truvada

Descovy

21
Q

What is the effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis drugs?

A

99% when taken consistently

74% for IV drug users

22
Q

What is a teaching point for HIV pre-exposure prophylactic drugs?

A

They do not protect against other STDs, continue to use condoms

23
Q

HIV pre-exposure prophylactic drugs are often covered by…

A

Insurance and medicaid or a patient can do a free medication program

24
Q

A patient with AIDS should avoid what type of locations? (2)

A

Croweded areas

Countries with poor sanitation

25
Q

What foods should a patient with AIDS avoid?

A
Raw foods (uncooked fruits and vegetables)
Undercooked foods
26
Q

What should people with AIDS avoid cleaning?

A

Pet litter boxes

27
Q

A patient with AIDS should do what, concerning their home?

A

Keep environment clean and don’t allow sick friends or family to visit

28
Q

What remains the same when a patient is diagnosed with AIDS?

A

ART continued

Frequent monitoring of CD4 and viral loads