Wk 1 Respiratory Labs and Diagnostics Flashcards Preview

Med Surg I > Wk 1 Respiratory Labs and Diagnostics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Wk 1 Respiratory Labs and Diagnostics Deck (60)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What is oximetry referring to?

A

The amount of hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen

2
Q

Decreased pulse ox could mean…

A

Hypoventilation, atelectasis, pneumothorax,

3
Q

Oximetry is commonly used to __ oxygen levels in hospitalized patients

A

titrate

4
Q

You can also put an pulse ox on an __ __ or __

A

ear lobe or toe

5
Q

Three types of sputum tests

A

C&S, Cytology, and AFB (acid fast bacillus)

6
Q

A C&S sputum should not be…

A

saliva

7
Q

A C&S sputum should be from where?

A

The throat

8
Q

What time is best to get a C&S sputum?

A

Early am

9
Q

For a chest x-ray, the patient needs to remove the metal on their body from where?

A

Between neck and waist

10
Q

What does CT scan stand for?

A

Computed tomography

11
Q

Describe the experience of the CT scan

A

Hard table, scanner revolves around body, and makes a clicking sound

12
Q

CT scans can be with or without

A

contrast

13
Q

What is contrast?

A

A medium that is injected into the patient’s IV to help highlight their internal structures

14
Q

Contrast is typically __ based

A

Iodine

15
Q

Contrast is nephro__

A

nephrotoxic, hard on the kidneys

16
Q

Two labs you need to look at if a patient is going for a CT with contast

A

creatinine and BUN

17
Q

A way you can tell if a patient might have a reaction to the iodine-based contrast for a CT is by asking them what?

A

If they are allergic to shellfish

18
Q

When the contrast is injected the patient will feel a __ __ all over their body

A

warm flush

19
Q

What should you encourage after the CT and why?

A

Increased fluid PO intake to flush to contrast out of the kidneys

20
Q

What does MRI stand for?

A

magnetic resonance imaging

21
Q

What is a MRI used for?

A

Assess lesions that are difficult to asses by CT and for distinguishing vascular from nonvascular structures

22
Q

MRI does use a __ medium

A

contrast

23
Q

What is different about the contrast medium for MRI?

A

It’s not iodine based

24
Q

If the MRI is “closed” what is a concern for the patient?

A

Claustrophobia

25
Q

What is important to do before having an MRI?

A

Remove everything and anything metal

26
Q

What does a PET scan stand for?

A

Positron Emission Tomography scan

27
Q

How does a PET scan work?

A

It uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to look for lung disease/cancer

28
Q

What is the difference between MRI/CT and a PET scan?

A

MRI/CT look at structure while a PET scan looks at function

29
Q

Examples of things a PET scan can look for…

A

Blood flow, use of oxygen, uptake of sugar

30
Q

A TB skin test is injection __

A

intradermally

31
Q

What degree angle should you inject a TB skin test?

A

10-15 degrees

32
Q

The solution for a TB needs to be in the __ and cause a __

A

epidermis, bleb

33
Q

What is a bronchoscopy?

A

Scoping of the bronchi

34
Q

Two reasons for a bronchoscopy

A

Obtain a biopsy or for treatment

35
Q

What needs to be anesthetized for a bronchoscopy?

A

Naso and/or oropharynx

36
Q

3 nursing care considerations for a patient before a bronchoscopy

A

Consent form, NPO for 6-12 hours, give sedation

37
Q

3 nursing care considerations for a patient after a bronchoscopy

A

Keep NPO until gag reflex returns
Blood tinged mucus NOT abnormal
If biopsy done, monitor for hemorrhage or pneumothorax

38
Q

What is the first sign of internal bleeding?

A

An increase in heart rate that is unexplained

39
Q

What is the next best nursing action for a patient experiencing blood tinged mucous after a bronchoscopy?

A

Document the findings

40
Q

What is a pneumothorax?

A

Collapsed lung

41
Q

4 ways a lung biopsy can be taken

A

Bronchoscopy, transthoracic needle aspiration, open lung biopsy, VATS procedure

42
Q

What is a VATS procedure?

A

Video assisted thoracic surgery

43
Q

Where is a VATS procedure done?

A

OR

44
Q

Where is an open lung biopsy done?

A

OR

45
Q

Where is a transthoracic needle aspiration done?

A

Radiology with CT guidance

46
Q

Where is a bronchoscopy done?

A

Endoscopy suite

47
Q

What is a cystoscopy?

A

Scoping of the bladder

48
Q

What is a pleural effusion?

A

Build-up of excess fluid between the layers of the pleura outside the lungs

49
Q

What is the treatment for a pleural effusion?

A

Thoracentesis

50
Q

3 reasons for a thoracentesis

A

obtain fluid for diagnosis, remove pleural fluid, instill medication

51
Q

What do they do during a thoracentesis?

A

Insert a large bore needle into the pleural space

52
Q

What is the problem with a pleural effusion?

A

Impacts surface area for oxygen delivery

53
Q

What is third spacing?

A

accumulation of fluid from the blood within body cavities, intestinal areas, or areas of the body that normally contain little or no fluid.

54
Q

3 nursing considerations before a thoracentesis

A

consent form, patient upright with elbows on overhead table in room, instruct not to talk

55
Q

Nursing care after thoracentesis

A

Chest x ray and assess for hypoxia and pneumothorax

56
Q

During a pulmonary function test, most patient have their nose

A

pinched

57
Q

Maximum amount of air expelled forcefully in 1 second is what?

A

forced expiratory volume or FEV1

58
Q

Who has a problem pushing air out?

A

COPD patients!

59
Q

The FEV1 on a patient with COPD would be…

A

lower

60
Q

What is a peak flow meter?

A

It’s used in asthma patients to assess for early asthma attack. Measures their FEV1