Wk 3 Potassium Imbalances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 3 Potassium Imbalances Deck (30)
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1
Q

Potassium it the major __ cation

A

Intracellular

2
Q

Sodium in the major __ cation

A

Extracellular

3
Q

What is the main function of potassium?

A

Regulates cell excitability and electrical status

4
Q

What is an example of excess potassium intake?

A

IV fluids with 40 units of KCl and renal insufficiency

5
Q

What is 3 examples that cause potassium to shift out of the cell and sodium into the cell, causing hyperkalemia?

A

Acidosis
Tissue catabolism
Intense exercise

6
Q

What is oliguria?

A

Low urine output

7
Q

What are two examples of failure to eliminate potassium?

A

Renal disease

Adrenal insufficiency

8
Q

What is adrenal insufficiency called?

A

Addison’s disease

9
Q

What medication classes can cause potassium to leave the body?

A

Loop and thiazide diuretics

10
Q

What is an example of a loop diuretic?

A

furosemide

11
Q

What type of diureitc is hydrochlorothiazide?

A

thiazide diuretic

12
Q

3 nonpharmacological reasons a patient may have excess potassium loss?

A

GI - vomiting or diarrhea
Kidney - dialysis
Diaphoresis

13
Q

What are three reasons that potassium might shift into the cell causing hypokalemia?

A

Increased insulin release
Insulin therapy
Alkalosis

14
Q

What are two examples of low potassium intake?

A

Starvation or a low potassium diet

No K+ in IVF if NPO

15
Q

EKG changes, fatigue, irritability, muscle weakness, are characteristic of what potassium imbalance?

A

Hyperkalemia AND hypokalemia

16
Q

What are three other characteristics of hyperkalemia?

A

Loss of muscle tone
Paresthesia
Confusion

17
Q

What would increase potassium excretion in a patient that is hyperkalemic?

A

Loop/thiazide diuretics
Dialysis
Patiromer (Veltessa) or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)

18
Q

How long does it take Patiromer (Veltessa) or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) to work?

A

Hours to days

19
Q

A patient who has very high serum potassium may be a candidate for emergency __.

A

dialysis

20
Q

If a patient is hyperkalemic and is also acidotic, what would you give them?

A

sodium bicarbonate

21
Q

What else will force potassium back into the cell for a patient with hyperkalemia?

A

Insulin and dextrose

22
Q

For a patient with hypokalemia, do we have to wait as long to increase their intake of potassium, like we would with sodium?

A

No

23
Q

You should not exceed __ meq/hr of potassium

A

10

24
Q

When can you exceed potassium restrictions?

A

In ICU setting and if patient has a CVAD (central venous access device)

25
Q

Infiltration of potassium can cause…

A

necrosis

26
Q

What would you do for a patient with hypokalemia?

A

Increase med intake
Increase PO intake
IV KCl

27
Q

Hypokalemia precipitates __

A

digitoxicity

28
Q

What are fruits that are high in potassium?

A
Apricot
Avocado
banana
cantaloupe
dried fruits
grapefruit juice
honeydew
oranges and OJ
prunes
raisins
29
Q

What are vegetables that are good sources of potassium?

A
Black beans
Butternut squash
Broccoli
Carrots
Greens (not kale)
Mushrooms
Potatoes
spinach
tomatoes
veggie juice
30
Q

What are other foods that are good sources of potassium?

A
bran or bran products
chocolate
granola
milk
nutritional supplements
nuts/seeds
pb
salt substitutes 
salt free broth
yogurt