Wk 2 Transfusion Reactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 2 Transfusion Reactions Deck (44)
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1
Q

What should you do if you suspect a transfusion reaction?

A

Stop the transfusion, change the tubing and infuse just the NS

2
Q

What else should you do if you suspect your patient is having a blood transfusion reaction?

A

Assess patient
Notify blood bank and HCP
Recheck ID tag and numbers
Monitor VS and urine output

3
Q

When will urine output be effected during a blood transfusion reaction?

A

During a hemolytic reaction

4
Q

Most likely, the HCP will say what about a blood transfusion reaction?

A

Give them some Tylenol and resume the blood transfusion

5
Q

If your patient has a blood transfusion, you may be asked to do what?

A

Save the blood bag and send it back to the blood bank

6
Q

After a blood transfusion reaction occurs, what form should you fill out?

A

Transfusion reaction report form

7
Q

What is the most life threatening blood transfusion reaction?

A

Acute hemolytic reaction

8
Q

What is an acute hemolytic reaction?

A

Incompatibility of blood product

9
Q

What is a febrile, nonhemolytic reaction?

A

Fever develops during infusion

10
Q

What is a mild allergic reaction?

A

Sensitization of donor’s WBCs, platelets, or plasma proteins

11
Q

What is a severe reaction concerning allergies during a blood transfusion?

A

Anaphlyaxis

12
Q

What infection can be a blood transfusion reaction?

A

Bacteremia/sepsis

13
Q

What reaction is circulatory overload?

A

Too much blood volume administered

14
Q

What is another name for circulatory overload?

A

TACO

transfusion-associated circulatory overload

15
Q

Leukocytes in a blood product are considered

A

a contaminant and can cause adverse reactions

16
Q

Most blood in the United States is…

A

Pre-storage leukoreducted

17
Q

What are the signs and symptoms of acute hemolytic transfusion reaction

A
Immediate Onset
Facial flushing
Fever
Headache
Low back pain
Hemoglobinuria
Dyspnea, tachypnea
Hypotension
Cardiac arrest/death
18
Q

What do you do if your patient is experiencing a hemolytic reaction?

A

Treat shock, maintain BP with IV colloids

19
Q

What should you do concerning the kidneys if your patient had a hemolytic reaction?

A

Obtain first voided urine and insert foley to monitor I&Os

20
Q

What sample should you collect after a patient has a hemolytic reaction?

A

Blood sample from IV site

21
Q

What else will you send to the lab after a patient has a hemolytic reaction?

A

Unit, tubing, and filter

22
Q

What are the s/s of a non hemolytic febrile reaction?

A
Sudden chills and fever
Headache
Flushing 
Anxiety
Vomiting 
Muscle pain
23
Q

What will the provider most likely order for a patient experiencing a non-hemolytic febrile reaction?

A

Administer antipyretic

Restart the blood transfusion

24
Q

How can non-hemolytic febrile reactions be prevented?

A

Ensure patient is receiving leukocyte reduced products

Give Tylenol prophylactically

25
Q

What are the s/s of a mild transfusion reaction?

A

Flushing
Itching
Urticaria

26
Q

What should the nurse do if the patient is experiencing a mild transfusion reaction?

A

Stop blood and notify HCP

27
Q

In the case of a mild transfusion reaction, the HCP will most likely order…

A

Antihistamine - diphenhydramine
Corticosteroid
Restart if symptoms are transient/mild

28
Q

What are prevention methods for a mild transfusion reaction?

A

Treat prophylactically with antihistamines and corticosteroids
Consider giving washed RBCs and platelets

29
Q

What are the s/s of a severe allergic reaction?

A

Anxiety
Urticaria
Dyspnea/wheezing
Progressing to cyanosis, bronchospasm, hypotension, shock, and cardiac arrest

30
Q

What should the nurse response be to a patient experiencing anaphylaxis?

A

Initiate CPR, start o2

Administer epi, also antihistamines, corticosteroids, b2 agonists

31
Q

Someone who experienced an anaphylactic reaction to a blood transfusion would need what prevention measures?

A

Extensively washed RBCs, and potentially autologous components

32
Q

What are the s/s of a bacterial/sepsis reaction?

A

Rapid onset of chills and high fever
Vomiting and diarrhea
Marked hypotension

33
Q

What should you do with any type of blood transfusion reaction first?

A

Stop the transfusion
Notify the provider
Return the blood

34
Q

What should you do if your patient is having a septic reaction to a blood transfusion?

A

Obtain blood culture and return blood bag to bank

Treat septicemia with abx, IVFs, and vasopressors

35
Q

What is the prevention for a septic reaction?

A

Get the blood in in 4 hours!!

36
Q

What are the s/s of a TACO reaction?

A
cough and dyspnea
pulmonary congestion
headache
increased VS
distended neck veins
37
Q

What is the nursing response to a patient experiencing a transfusion-associated circulatory overload reaction?

A

Slow or stop infusion
Administer diuretics, morphine, o2
CXR stat

38
Q

What is the best way to prevent a TACO reaction?

A

Recognize who is at risk and administer slow

39
Q

What is another name for autologous transfusions?

A

Auto transfusions

40
Q

What is an autologous donation?

A

Patient donates their own blood before a planned procedure

41
Q

How long can autologous blood be kept?

A

frozen and stored for years

42
Q

If blood is not frozen, it must be used…

A

within a few weeks

43
Q

Why is autologous blood not used as much?

A

Expensive
Insurance often won’t pay
Often the blood is wasted

44
Q

What is a blood salvage system?

A

During surgery the patient loses blood, they keep it and put it back into the patient