Wk 3 Sodium Imbalances Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 3 Sodium Imbalances Deck (35)
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1
Q

What is the normal range for sodium?

A

135-145

2
Q

What is the normal range for potassium?

A

3.5-5

3
Q

What is the normal range for calcium?

A

9-10.5

4
Q

What is the range for magnesium?

A

1.3-2.1

5
Q

What is the range for phosphorous?

A

3.0-4.5

6
Q

What is the chemical abbreviation for phosphorous?

A

PO4

7
Q

Sodium is the major…

A

extracellular fluid cation

8
Q

Cations have what electrical charge?

A

Positive

9
Q

What does osmolality mean?

A

Particles per solution/concentration

10
Q

2 important functions of sodium

A

Governs osmolality

Activates muscle/nerve cells (Action potential)

11
Q

What are two intakes that can cause hypernatremia?

A

Hypertonic IVF

Tube feedings without water supplements

12
Q

To be a hypertonic solution, the Na+ concentration must be greater than…

A

0.9%

13
Q

The water that is added to tube feedings is called…

A

Free water

14
Q

Why is an elderly person at risk for hypernatremia?

A

Inadequate water intake, inadequate thirst mechanism

15
Q

What are some other possible reasons for inadequate water intake?

A

Anorexia
Depression
Vomiting
Diarrhea

16
Q

What are examples of excessive water loss that would lead to hypernatremia?

A

Insensible water loss
Diarrhea
Osmotic diuretics

17
Q

What is an example insensible water loss?

A

Breathing (Running or sweating)

18
Q

Why is it called insensible water loss?

A

Because you can’t see it

19
Q

3 pathological causes of hypernatremia

A

Diabetes insipidus
Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DKA)
Cushing syndrome

20
Q

What are causes of hyponatremia related to excess sodium loss? (5)

A
GI losses
Renal losses
Diuretics
Burns
Wounds
21
Q

What are two other reasons a patient may have hyponatremia?

A

Inadequate sodium intake

Excess water gain, such as hypotonic IVF

22
Q

What are 4 disease processes that can cause hyponatremia

A

SIADH
Heart failure
Kidney failure
Cirrhosis

23
Q

Why does a chance in sodium concentration cause altered mental status?

A

Sodium causes the cells to shrink or enlarge, included the cells in the brain

24
Q

What are symptoms of change in mental status?

A
Headache
Irritability
Difficulty concentrating
Confusion
Seizures
Coma
25
Q

When someone has sodium imbalance you should think…

A

mental status changes

26
Q

Postural hypotension
Tachycardia
Weakness

These are signs of what concerning sodium?

A

Hypernatermia/fluid volume deficit

27
Q

If someone has a sodium imbalance you should aim to achieve normal sodium levels in what amount of time?

A

48 hours

28
Q

Why is adjusting sodium imbalances done over a longer period of time?

A

To avoid edema of cerebral cortex

29
Q

Weight gain and increased blood pressure are characteristic of?

A

Hyponatremia

30
Q

A patient with heart failure would most likely have what sodium imbalance?

A

Hyponatremia

31
Q

If a patient has mild hyponatremia, we might…

A

Restrict fluids and loop diuretics

32
Q

Fluid restrictions are super common for which three pathologies?

A

End-stage renal disease
Heart failure
Cirrhosis of the liver

33
Q

If a patient is severely hyponatremic, what might the provider order?

A

Hypertonic NS (3%) over 48 hours

34
Q

What nursing consideration should you do for a patient who is hyponatremic?

A

Provide a safe environment as needed

35
Q

Both hyper and hyponatremia can lead to…

A

Seizures and coma