Wk 2 Anemia Classifications & Manifestations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Wk 2 Anemia Classifications & Manifestations Deck (42)
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1
Q

What are thrombocytes?

A

Platelets

2
Q

What makes up the plasma?

A

Protein (7%)
Water (91%)
Other solutes (2%)

3
Q

Anemia is classified by…

A

Morphology and etiology

4
Q

4 morphology classifications of anemia

A

Normocytic/normochromic
Macrocytic normochromic
Macrocytic hypochromic
Microcytic hypochromic

5
Q

What are three reasons for decreased RBC production?

A

Decreased nutrient
Decreased erythropoietin
Decreased iron availability

6
Q

What is the scientific name of vitamin b12?

A

cobalamin

7
Q

What are three examples of chronic blood loss that lead to anemia?

A

Duodenal ulcer
Colorectal cancer
Liver disease

8
Q

What is a common cause of a low H&H on a med-surg floor?

A

Patient came back from surgery, lost blood during surgery

9
Q

What are examples of increased RBC destruction etiologies of anemia?

A

Sickle cell disease
Medications
Incompatible blood
Trauma

10
Q

How is trauma an example of increased RBC destruction etiology for anemia?

A

Cardiopulmonary bypass

11
Q

What medication may cause increased RBC destruction?

A

Methyldopa

12
Q

If you don’t have enough hemoglobin to synthesize the RBC (RBC production), what type of anemia is this?

A

Iron-deficiency anemia

13
Q

If you have defective DNA synthesis, what type of anemias do you have?

A
B12 deficiency (cobalamin)
Folic acid deficiency
14
Q

defective DNA synthesis is also called…

A

Megaloblastic anemia

15
Q

What is the most common cause of b12 deficiency anemia?

A

Pernicious anemia (lacks intrinsic factor)

16
Q

Someone with pernicious anemia might also have…

A

Other autoimmune diseases such as diabetes

17
Q

What types of anemias are caused by a decrease in RBC precursors (red bone marrow)?

A

Aplastic anemia
Chronic disease (renal failure)
Medications (chemotherapy)

18
Q

A group of anemia disorders caused by impaired DNA synthesis

A

Megaloblastic anemia

19
Q

The RBCs in megaloblastic anemias are __ and __

A

big and abnormal

20
Q

Why are megaloblasts (RBCs) easily destroyed?

A

They have fragile cell membranes

21
Q

What are 2 megaloblastic anemias?

A

b12 and folate deficiency

22
Q

What is an insidious disease?

A

Any disease that comes on slowly and does not have obvious symptoms at first. The person is not aware of it developing.

23
Q

3 examples of chronic blood loss that can lead to anemia

A

Gastritis
Menstrual flow
Hemorrhoids

24
Q

A patient with an insidious disease that causes anemia may not be as…

A

Symptomatic as someone with a quick onset, such as traumatic bleeding

25
Q

Wrong blood infusion can cause __ anemia

A

Hemolytic

26
Q

What are symptoms of severe anemia? (4)

A

Syncope
Angina
MI
Worsening CHF

27
Q

What is the lab value for mild anemia?

A

Hgb 10-14

28
Q

What are the symptoms of mild anemia?

A

Usually none, or mild with activity

29
Q

Who is someone who might be mildly anemic?

A

Someone with heavy menstrual periods

30
Q

What is the lab value for moderate anemia?

A

Hgb 6-10

31
Q

What are the symptoms of moderate anemia?

A

Cardiopulmonary symptoms that may occur at rest

32
Q

What is the lab value for severe anemia?

A

Hgb less than 6

33
Q

What are the symptoms of severe anemia?

A

Many body symptoms involved

Symptoms at rest

34
Q

Why is someone with anemia weak and fatigued?

A

There isn’t enough oxygen getting delivered to the muscles and not enough energy being produced

35
Q

Why is someone with anemia pale?

A

Peripheral vasoconstriction, blood being shunted to vital organs

36
Q

Why might someone with anemia be tachycardic or have palpitations?

A

Cardiac output is increasing to compensate

37
Q

/What is the equation for cardiac output?

A

CO = HR x SV

38
Q

__ is an indirect measure of cardiac output

A

BP

39
Q

Why does a patient with anemia experience bone pain?

A

Secretion of erythropoietin goes up, bones are producing more rbcs to compensate for lack of oxygen

40
Q

Where might a patient with anemia experience bone pain (on the body)?

A

iliac crest and sternum

41
Q

Why might someone with anemia have a MI, get HF, or have angina?

A

Hypoxia effecting the heart muscle

42
Q

Why might a patient with anemia be experiencing dyspnea or tachypnea?

A

They are hypoxic and overall oxygenation is low