02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.02 Mentalism vs Environment Flashcards Preview

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1

When developing a behavioral technology, you

determine whether a treatment package gets results.

Malott & Suarez (2004, pp. 328-329) describe behavioral technology as the development and evaluation of a treatment package. The package is evaluated for efficacy, but not necessarily each component and it is not necessarily compared to other technologies (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 166). Note, of course, that technology does not have to involve computers or modern electronics, as is the popular use of the term.

2

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the experimental analysis of behavior?

It requires continuous observation.
It seldom provides readily applicable solutions to important problems.
It is a method for study in natural environments. ****
It has its theoretical underpinnings in behaviorism.


3

Applied behavior analysis



Applied behavior analysis (a) addresses only behavior issues that are important to the individual or society, (b) has its underlying philosophy in behaviorism, and (c) uses a variety of measurement strategies. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 5; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 16)

4

A teacher combines a variety of empirically validated strategies to form her own behavior management system. This is best characterized as

a behavioral technology.


Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines technology as "the practical application of knowledge." For example, applying Skinner's verbal analysis of behavior to teach children with autism communication skills is a technology. Similarly, this computer program is a technology due to its application of behavioral principles to teach. Note that technology does not have to involve computers or modern electronics, as is the popular use of the term.

5

Which is a environmental account? "The eating disorder

asked to do certain things."

Causal status is erroneously suggested by the mentalistic terms "wanting," "doesn't want," and "anger." Pointing out an antecedent event (i.e., asked to do certain things) that precedes aggression is an environmental account. To make the others behavioral accounts, you would need to (a) operationally define the terms, and (b) unless experimental control is established, use them in a manner that implies only a correlation-not a causal relation. For example, "aggression follows anger, defined as yelling, stomping, and refusing," would be an environmental account. "Follows" only denotes a temporal relation-not a causal one. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 12; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993a, pp. 5-6; Skinner, 1974)

6

Which term is likely to be associated with a behavioral explanation?

resolve
strength of character
actions
desire

actions

7

Mentalistic explanations include actions involving
physical phenomena.
the environment.
the mind.
brain activity.

the mind.

8

The experimental analysis of behavior is characterized by
application of laboratory findings to social problems.
research exclusively on humans.
basic research.
seeking solutions to human problems.

basic research.

9

Which term is likely to be associated with a behavioral explanation?
statements
feelings
thoughts
attitudes

statements

10

Research on basic principles characterizes
the experimental analysis of behavior.
B. F. Skinner's work with human subjects.
applied behavior analysis.
(all of the others)

the experimental analysis of behavior.

11

Which exemplifies a technology? A reading program
designed to investigate how students learn to read.
for which some elements have been experimentally evaluated.
that uses computer technology.
that has been experimentally demonstrated to improve reading.

that has been experimentally demonstrated to improve reading.

12

Applied behavior analysis
provides the foundation upon which the experimental analysis of behavior was developed.
was defined by Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968).
was defined by Skinner (1953).
ignores conceptual issues.

was defined by Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968).

The dimensions of applied behavior analysis were outlined by Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) in the first edition of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. One of the dimensions is relating phenomena in a conceptually systematic fashion. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 5; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 16)

13

Mentalism interferes with the search for
controlling antecedents.
controlling motivations.
theories.
the mind.

controlling antecedents.

A mentalistic explanation is an explanation of cause-an event within the mind that causes a behavior. If this is accepted, there is no further need for inquiry. Hence, there is no need to seek other controlling antecedent influences. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 5; Skinner, 1974)

14

Which is devoid of mentalistic accounts? "The eating disorder
followed the rape and subsequent reports of irrational fears."
is caused by negative self-statements that she said only to herself."
is the result of unconscious depressive thoughts."
started with the emotional trauma of having been attacked."

followed the rape and subsequent reports of irrational fears."

15

Which exemplifies basic science? A reading program
that has been experimentally demonstrated to improve reading.
that focuses on teaching reading skills.
for which the entire package has been experimentally evaluated.
designed to investigate how students learn.

designed to investigate how students learn.

16

Which is devoid of mentalistic terminology? "Studying increased
due to the realization that failure was imminent if she didn't study."
due to the increased anxiety of not being prepared."
as a result of saying self-imposed rules on when and where to study."
as a result of making a commitment to study.”

as a result of saying self-imposed rules on when and where to study."

17

Which is a behavioral account? "Less mouthing occurs
when she knows punishment is forthcoming for mouthing.
when she wants to hold other objects."
when she is given objects to hold."
when she wants reinforcement obtainable by manipulating objects.

when she is given objects to hold."

18

Which contribution can be directly attributed to the experimental analysis of behavior?
the distinction between respondent and operant behavior.
computer-based training.
the distinction between determinism and free will.
precision teaching.

the distinction between respondent and operant behavior.

The experimental analysis of behavior focuses on discovering principles under very controlled conditions. For example, B. F. Skinner identified the distinction between respondent and operant behavior. Application of basic principles to human social issues is applied behavior analysis. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 8-12; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 10-11)

19

Which is devoid of mentalistic terminology? "I control my behavior

by establishing rules and providing consequences."
through will power, rules, and consequences."
by being mindful of rules and consequences."
(One cannot control their behavior.)

by establishing rules and providing consequences."

20

A mentalistic explanation
alludes to events that are neither observable nor measurable.
is often metaphorical.
is exemplified by the "mind."
(all of the others)

All others

21

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of applied behavior analysis?
It addresses only important pathological behavior.
It uses measurement strategies other than automated measurement.
It has its theoretical underpinnings in behaviorism.
It has significance to the participants.

It addresses only important pathological behavior.

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