03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.05 Stimulus Control and Behavioral Contingencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.05 Stimulus Control and Behavioral Contingencies Deck (25)
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1

A student never engages in noise making when a particular person is present. Never one to deliver reinforcement, this person is
an S-Delta or SD.
an S-Delta or S-P.
a negative reinforcer.
an SD or S-P.

an S-Delta or S-P.

S-P - a stimulus that, when present, weakens behavior because of a history of punishment
SD - a stimulus, in the presence of which a behavior has been previously reinforced
S-Delta - a stimulus, in the presence of which a behavior has NOT been previously reinforced. Note that this is contrasted with a neutral stimulus, which has no predictive value.
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 261, 331-331; Michael, 1993, pp. 73-74; Miltenberger, 1997, pp. 124-127)

2

A dependent relationship between two or more stimuli is
a respondent contingency.
necessary to achieve operant conditioning.
necessary to achieve respondent extinction.
(all of the others)

a respondent contingency.

This describes a respondent contingency. The unconditioned stimulus and neutral stimulus are presented in close temporal relation. The neutral stimulus acquires conditioned stimulus properties and can later elicit the behavior. (Catania, 1998, pp. 383-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 21; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 30)

3

An operant contingency
is the circumstances under which some stimuli are followed by other stimuli.
cannot include punishment.
is the circumstances under which a response results in a particular consequence.
describes the evocative effect of an EO.

is the circumstances under which a response results in a particular consequence.

An operant contingency is the stimulus conditions under which a behavior will result in a consequence. It could be thought of as a conditional probability-given X conditions and Y behavior, Z consequence will follow (on a particular schedule). (Catania, 1998, p. 383; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 41-42)

4

A discriminative stimulus (SD)
evokes behavior.
precedes behavior.
indicates that reinforcement is available.
(all of the others)

all

5

A discriminative stimulus (SD)
is a reinforcer.
precedes behavior.
elicits behavior.
follows behavior.

precedes behavior.

6

Once you were chastised for saying "Howdy" when you answered the phone, so you don't say that any more. An answered phone held to the ear is now a S-P for
answering the phone.
saying "Howdy."
not answering the phone.
saying "Hello."

saying "Howdy."

The response of saying "Howdy" was punished in the presence of the phone to the ear. Therefore, it is an S-P. Note that after once saying "Hello" is reinforced, it becomes an SD. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 331-332; Michael, 1993, pp. 73-74; Miltenberger, 1997, pp.124-127)

7

A dependent relationship between a response class and one or more stimulus classes is a
relationship between an antecedent, behavior, and its consequence.
contingency.
necessary condition for operant conditioning.
(all of the others)

all others
This item defines an operant contingency. The relationship is between the establishing operation, behavior, and consequence. (Catania, 1998, pp. 383-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 21; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 41-42)

8

An operant contingency includes
the antecedent conditions.
the behavior.
the probability of a particular consequence.
(all of the others)

all others
An operant contingency is the stimulus conditions under which a behavior will result in a consequence. It could be thought of as a conditional probability-given X conditions and Y behavior, Z consequence will follow (on a particular schedule). (Catania, 1998, p. 383; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 41-42)

9

A teacher takes away a point each time a student speaks out in class. This is a/an
stimulus-stimulus contingency.
operant contingency.
example of stimulus control.
respondent contingency.

OPERANT CONTINGENCY - stimulus (consequence) occurs as a function of abehavior.
RESPONDENT (OR STIMULUS-STIMULUS ) CONTINGENCY- one stimulus follows another stimulus (independent of behavior).
(Catania, 1998, pp.383-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 29-33, 41-42)

10

A student begins to engage in self-injurious behavior whenever a particular trainer enters the room. With respect to self-injury this trainer may be a/an
discriminative stimulus.
positive reinforcer.
S-Delta.
negative reinforcer.

discriminative stimulus.

11

Behavior changes that result from the presentation or removal of an antecedent stimulus demonstrates
reinforcement.
stimulus control.
extinction.
eliciting control.

stimulus control

Behavior changes that result from the presentation or removal of an antecedent stimulus demonstrate stimulus control. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 299-300; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 41)

12

An operant contingency includes
the probability of a particular behavior given a stimulus.
the probability of a particular stimulus given a behavior.
the probability of a particular stimulus given another stimulus.
(all of the others)

the probability of a particular stimulus given a behavior.

An operant contingency is the stimulus conditions under which a behavior will result in a consequence. It could be thought of as a conditional probability-given X conditions and Y behavior, Z consequence will follow (on a particular schedule). A respondent (or stimulus-stimulus) contingency refers to the probability of a particular stimulus given another stimulus. (Catania, 1998, pp. 383-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 29-33)

13

An experiment sounds a warning signal, then 2 seconds later provides a shock. This is a/an
example of stimulus control.
operant contingency.
respondent contingency.
stimulus-response contingency.

respondent contingency.
OPERANT CONTINGENCY - stimulus (consequence) occurs as a function of a behavior.
RESPONDENT (OR STIMULUS-STIMULUS) CONTINGENCY - one stimulus follows another stimulus (independent of behavior).
(Catania, 1998, pp. 383-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 29-33, 41-42)

14

An m&m follows the spoken "Ball," when shown the word "ball." This is a/an
stimulus-stimulus contingency.
operant contingency.
respondent contingency.
operant stimulus-stimulus contingency.

operant contingency.

An operant contingency is the stimulus conditions under which a behavior will result in a consequence. It could be thought of as a conditional probability-given X conditions and Y behavior, Z consequence will follow (on a particular schedule). A respondent (or stimulus-stimulus) contingency refers to the probability of a particular stimulus given another stimulus. (Catania, 1998, pp. 383-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 29-33, 41-42)

15

Dad always punished his son for taking cookies before dinner. When dad is present, the son doesn't take cookies. This exemplifies an
S-P.
S-Delta.
SD.
(none of the others)

SP

16

You've stopped opening e-mails from strangers once you got a virus. E-mails from strangers is now a/an
SD.
S-R.
S-Delta.
S-P.

S-P.

17

A dependent relationship between a response class and one or more stimulus classes or between two or more stimuli is
a contingency.
stimulus control.
a functional relationship.
an establishing operation.

a contingency.

The first part of this item describes an operant contingency and the latter part describes a respondent contingency. With an operant contingency, the relationship is between the antecedent, behavior, and consequence. With a respondent contingency, the relationship is between two or more antecedent stimuli. (Catania, 1998, pp. 383-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 21; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 42)

18

A stimulus that, when present, weakens behavior because of a history of punishment is
an S-P.
an SD.
an S-Delta.
(none of the others)

an S-P.

19

A resident often starts hitting himself when a particular staff person enters the room. What is demonstrated?
stimulus reinforcement
stimulus control
positive punishment
(all of the others)

stimulus control
Changes in behavior concurrent with the presentation or removal of a stimulus exemplifies stimulus control. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 299-300; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 41)

20

A respondent contingency includes
the probability of a particular stimulus given a behavior.
the probability of a particular stimulus given another stimulus.
the probability of a particular behavior given a stimulus.
(all of the others)

the probability of a particular stimulus given another stimulus.

21

A discriminative stimulus evokes behavior because
responding in the past in its presence has NOT resulted in reinforcement.
it has been used as a reinforcer in the past.
responding in the past in its presence has resulted in reinforcement.
of the eliciting properties of the discriminative stimulus.

responding in the past in its presence has resulted in reinforcement.

22

A student stops singing each time the teacher enters the room. What is demonstrated?
negative reinforcement
(none of the others)
negative punishment
stimulus control

stimulus control
Changes in behavior concurrent with the presentation or removal of an antecedent stimulus exemplifies stimulus control. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 299-300; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 41)

23

A particular behavior occurs every time a particular stimulus is presented. What is demonstrated?
positive reinforcement
positive punishment
negative reinforcement
stimulus control

stimulus control

24

The definition of contingency includes "a dependent relationship between two or more stimuli." This refers to
the relationship between two antecedent stimuli.
necessary conditions to achieve respondent conditioning.
unconditioned and (initially) neutral stimuli.
(all of the others)

all others

This describes a respondent contingency. The unconditioned stimulus and neutral stimulus precede behavior and are presented in close temporal relation. The neutral stimulus acquires conditioned stimulus properties and can later elicit the behavior. (Catania, 1998, pp. 383-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, pp. 19-21; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 30)

25

An m&m is followed by a light each time the word "Ball" is present. This is a/an
discriminative stimulus.
example of stimulus control.
operant contingency.
respondent contingency.

respondent contingency

An operant contingency requires that a consequence be conditional upon a behavior. A respondent (or stimulus-stimulus) contingency requires only that one stimulus follow another stimulus. (Catania, 1998, pp. 383-384; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 29-33, 41-42)

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